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Additional materials for stubs to be transferred to History of Peru


Culture on culture. Hispanic research (Germany)Edit

http://lotse.uni-muenster.de/hispanistik/index-de.php




Hispanic research in Germany




http://www.cedla.uva.nl/60_publications/PDF_files_(...)Drinot.pdf



http://academia.wikia.com/index.php?title=http%3A%2F%2Fbvirtual.bnp.gob.pe%2Fbvirtual%2Findex.php&action=edit&redlink=1 Edit

http://www.digital-librarian.com/latinamerican.html








Seleccione una base de datos para ver los resultados. Su búsqueda fue (Todos campos) peru.

















Base de datos Número de encontrados
Catalogo del Instituto Ibero-Americano de Berlin 28271
Coleccion "Espana/Portugal" de la Biblioteca Universitaria de Hamburgo 76
Catalogo del Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos (ILAS) 1686
World Affairs Online (Catalogo 2 ILAS) 3032
Collecion "Latinoamerica" de la Biblioteca Linga de Hamburgo 1691
Centro de documentacion sobre Portugal Trier 0
Catalogo de la Fundacion Friedrich-Ebert (Bonn) 774
Textos Completos Digitales 280
IberoDigital 1 (a partir de 1999) 11231
IberoDigital 2 (1974-1998) 1298
Recursos Digitales Iberolinks 209
OLC-SSG Espana y Portugal - Servicio de contenidos de revista 180
Servicio de Contenidos 57
Handbook of Latin American Studies 8476
Bibliografía de la Hispanística 12
© 2005 OCLC PICA







  1. Chavín: El Formativo
  1. http://academia.wikia.com/index.php?title=http%3A%2F%2Fbvirtual.bnp.gob.pe%2Fbvirtual%2Findex.php&action=edit&redlink=1
  1. El Tahuantinsuyu
  1. La Conquista
  1. Virreynato. Economía y Sociedad
  1. Las Reformas Borbónicas
  1. Túpac Amaru, el gran rebelde
  1. El Perú Independiente||
  1. Confederación Perú – Boliviana
  1. El Guano, las economías de exportación
  1. La guerra del Pacífico
  1. El Perú en la Segunda Guerra Mundial
  1. Perú. Economía y Tributación||


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*Local history – e.g. History of Lima etc.




  • Please add contributions directly after logging in or send corrections and additions to the transcription, translation and other text to paulgoulder(at)'yahoo.com or phone 0044 (0)208 946 7287.



===Tutorial 10X. Where the histories of Peru, France, and the UK touch - multi-heritage histories for British Peruvians and Franco-Peruvians===

===An iconic figure: Flora Tristan===

I suppose every writer ought to be allowed his minute pecadillos. I would like to be allowed to elect a patron saint for this tutorial. One who is akin to our architypal reader: A "Europeruvian" perhaps having a father from Peru and a mother from France who has written graphic accounts of Peru, Britain and France and has demonstrated great empathy and understanding for Peruvian history.



[[File:Tristan - madre o hija.jpg|thumb|left|213px]]

“Es sólo en 1838 cuando publica las Peregrinaciones de una paria bajo el lema Dios, franqueza, libertad!. Cuenta Ventura García Calderón que en un artículo publicado en L´Artiste el señor Pompery afirmó en 1838 que algunas parisienses comenzaron a usar la saya y manto en homenaje a este libro”.




[http://www.sucedioenelperu.org/programas/programa11.htm <nowiki>'''[1''']</nowiki>''']Utilising knowledge-sharing (Web 2.0) technologies: collaborative editing software, video-sharing networking etc. ''Note that these pages are open to collaborative editing''. '''


[http://www.sucedioenelperu.org/programas/programa01.htm <nowiki>'''[2''']</nowiki>''']Which dating system is preferable? <nowiki>''</nowiki>'''



Annexe Full text and translation for referenceEdit

History of Peru

A collaborative approach




The first contact period: 1519 to 1580 AD.




See also Introduction; First urbanised settlements 3000 BC .



The distribution list indicates the need for a flexible methodology. Currently there are just within Britain . . . . groupings. The original target group: children of Peruvians in the United Kingdom does not have one unified list. The lists are as follows.

Peruvianists members of SLAS The Peru interest group of SALAM Peruvianists members of Canning House Education, library and cultural departments of Canning House

Specialist histories: Afro-Peruvian; British Peruvian and Peruvian British; Economic history; History of literature; History of music, dance, and song; History of poetry; History of migrations and diasporas; Diplomatic history; Botanical and natural history; History of architecture;


Conquista del Tawantinsuyu


0.27 Toni Zapata and Benito (Angel Calvo)


Zapata 00.28 : Oye, Benito. Hoy día vamos a presentar el programa sobre la conquista de los (las?)Incas. Benito: El Tawantinsuyu Zapata: Un clásico de la historia peruana, Benito, que lamentablemente se cuenta algunas veces muy mal. Benito: Y? Zapata: Porque se dice que un grupo de 170 españoles derribó un imperio de 12 millones de personas allí en Cajamarca. Benito: Eso es imposible, Profesor. Zapata (00.50): Y lesiona la autoestima de los peruanos, y encima tu sabes que no es cierto porque en realidad este grupo de españoles - hablando de ellos primero - eran la avanzada de la civilización occidental y tenían cuarenta años de experiencia porque Colon había ya llegado al Nuevo mundo 40 años antes que Pizarro al Perú. Benito: Ya. Zapata: De todas maneras tenían un plan. Benito: Cual era, Profesor? Zapata: Capturar el rey. Benito: Ya. Zapata: En un emboscado capturar el soberano, y a partir de allí desmembrar la entidad política de los indígenas. Benito: La estrategia de la ajedrez. Zapata: Exacto capturar el rey y sacar el juego. Benito: Check mate.


1.37 Efraín Trelles La conquista es una empresa económica y no es una empresa ibérica. Segundo es una empresa privada. No es el estado español que lo hace la conquista. Los conquistadores ha (auto) financiado. Y a cambio de este riesco reciben el exceso? fuerzo del trabajo de los/las indígenas.

2.01 José Antonio del Busto Con la conquista uno no puede lamentarse ni felicitarse, simplemente eso pasó ni aplaudir sucedió. En el imperio de los Incas no era perfecto. El imperio de los Incas lo conozco yo – no era perfecto como el imperio español tampoco no eran. Eran dos realidades humanas, dos lógicos distintos, dos modos de pensar, dos culturas que se encontraron . . .


2.33 Sección La Conquista - Narrativo / voiceover

El final del Tawantinsuyu se anunció cuando Huayna Capac era el soberano y gobernaba desde Quito. En ese momento, el inca recibió noticias del segundo viaje de los españoles.


2.54 Pizarro había desembarcado en Tumbes, luego había vuelto a su carabela bajando por la costa hasta avizorar Chan Chan. Ahí tomó la decisión de retornar a España para armar una expedición en regla; el incario era demasiado imponente para las fuerzas que disponía entonces. Luego, se enfermó el inca viejo y su sucesor ya designado. Llegaban las epidemias. En esta ocasión, se trataba de la viruela, una enfermedad del Viejo Mundo cuyos gérmenes viajaban más rápido que los conquistadores y atacaban con feroz mortalidad a poblaciones que carecían de defensas adecuadas. Ambos fallecieron y se creó un peligroso vacío de poder en el incario.


3.40 Gabriela Ramos

El poder de los epidémias – contra eso, quien pudo hacer algo u nadie lo entendía en esa época. Los españoles entendieron eso era una especie de ayuda especial, que recibieron por el hecho de ser cristianos

4.00 Voiceover

La madre de Huascar era la Coya y al producirse la muerte de Huayna Capac, salió de Quito corriendo al Cuzco, donde hizo proclamar a su hijo como nuevo Inca.

José Antonio del Busto 4.11 Huascar no fue muy acertado yo . . esa ocasión alguna risa cuando digo que la vida de Huascar era muy similar a un playboy y fue hace un individuo carecia / padecía disciplino objetivo vivía solamente para divertirse no era por dicirlo el digno sucesor de Huayna Capac, ni nieto de Tupak Yupanki ni nieto de Pachacutec

4.36 Narative Voiceover Pero, Huascar inició su gobierno con medidas radicales. El nuevo monarca intentó cortar el poder de las familias de la nobleza imperial, denominadas “panacas”, porque habían extendido su poder en exceso y una enorme extensión de territorio estaba siendo privatizado por la aristocracia cuzqueña.


Guillermo Cock 4.51 Cada panaca, cada inca y sus descendientes se apropiaban de valles completos y convertían a la población en yanaconas y dependían directamente de ellos lo cual le complicaba al estado el manejo porque sacaba por un lado de este . . . esta gente de su control directo y añadir además un elemento adicional de intermediación. Si ellos necesitaban algo de esta zona si necesitaban gente de esta zona tiene que ir al jefe de los clanes de Cuzco.



5.31 Narative Voiceover Las decisiones de Huascar fueron resistidas por las grandes familias aristocráticas y algunas se rebelaron llamando a Atahualpa para que encabece un levantamiento contra el Inca recién proclamado. Por su parte, Atahualpa era otro hijo de Huayna Capac que, junto con parte de la corte, había acompañado a su padre a Quito.



Spare clip - La hueste española entró a Cajamarca; de acuerdo a lo convenido con Apo, la ciudad estaba prácticamente abandonada y la plaza vacía. Pero, durante la entrada

La hueste española entró a Cajamarca; de acuerdo a lo convenido con Apo, la ciudad estaba prácticamente abandonada y la plaza vacía. Pero, durante la entrada Atahualpa logró dominar la muy cruenta guerra civil entre los incas y obtuvo una trabajosa victoria. Huascar había entregado el mando a varios generales que fueron vencidos, hasta que él mismo tomó la dirección de la guerra y el resultado fue peor para su causa, pues fue hecho prisionero. Ya era el fatídico año de 1532. Video clip2

Narrator continues. Atahualpa fue derrotado en una primera batalla y cayó preso de los cañaris, que eran un grupo étnico cuyo territorio estaba situado en la sierra del actual Ecuador. Pero, esa misma noche Atahualpa se escapó de prisión. Luego, contó que se había transformado en serpiente ganando su libertad a través de los barrotes de la celda. De acuerdo a su versión, era un dios y por lo tanto era invencible.

00.33 José Antonio del Busto (The legend and defeats of Huascar and Atahualpa)

00.52 Narrator continues. Atahualpa logró dominar la muy cruenta guerra civil entre los incas y obtuvo una trabajosa victoria. Huascar había entregado el mando a varios generales que fueron vencidos, hasta que él mismo tomó la dirección de la guerra y el resultado fue peor para su causa, pues fue hecho prisionero. Ya era el fatídico año de 1532.


Estando en Cajamarca, Atahualpa fue informado de la reaparición de los hombres barbudos que cruzaban el mar. Decidió detener su marcha triunfal al Cuzco y recibir a los extranjeros que tanto habían intrigado a su padre. La capital inca ha sido (estaba?) capturada por el general Quisquis, leal a Atahualpa, quien había desatado una feroz represión sobre el sector de la aristocracia cuzqueña fiel al inca derrotado. En Jauja, en medio del Tawantinsuyu, permanecía otro ejército de Atahualpa, al mando del general Calcuchimac.

En el tercer viaje de la conquista, los españoles nuevamente desembarcaron en Tumbes y se trabaron en combates con los naturales. La tierra estaba desolada por la guerra civil entre los incas y ya no percibieron el orden y la amabilidad que encontraron durante el viaje anterior. Luego continuaron su marcha hacia el Piura actual. Cuando estaban cruzando (el desierto de) Sechura apareció un emisario de Atahualpa, iba disfrazado de indio del común. Se llamaba Apo y se mezcló entre los indios que seguían a la hueste hispana como porteadores y proveedores. Apo curioseó demasiado en el campamento de los españoles y movió la ira de Hernando Pizarro, quien era el único hidalgo de los cuatro hermanos Pizarro. Hernando pateó a Apo y al caer se desbarató el turbante que escondía sus grandes orejas. Fue identificado como orejón, miembro de la aristocracia inca. Al ponerse de pie, los indios cayeron postrados de hinojos. Los españoles tomaron conciencia que estaban ante un espía real y lo trataron de manera cuidadosa. Le entregaron una copa de cristal de Venecia y dos camisas de seda de la India como regalos para que lleve al Inca.

Los españoles llegaron hasta el actual Lambayeque y cuando se hallaban cerca de la cordillera retornó Apo.

Click on graphic to see original of this Huaman Poma frame in the Royal Danish Library in Copenhagen. (03.23) Esta vez vino como embajador, era portado en andas y traía el regalo de Atahualpa. Este presente consistía en una maqueta de una fortaleza y tres patos desollados. Pizarro se mostró desconcertado e interpretó el regalo como una señal de que Atahualpa confiaba en sus fortalezas y que amenazaba con desollarlos. Asimismo, Apo los invitó a subir a Cajamarca para entrevistarse con el Inca que los quería recibir.


Mientras tanto, Apo se había reunido con Atahualpa, informándole lo que había visto y juntos elaboraron un plan, que consistía en apoderarse de los caballos. El pool genético animal del Tawantinsuyu era bastante limitado, porque no había ningún animal mayor susceptible de ser montado o puesto a arar. Toda la agricultura y el transporte eran a pie. Los camélidos eran espléndidos animales, pero no estaba mal apoderarse de nuevas bestias que faciliten la vida económica y política del Tawantinsuyu. De acuerdo al parecer de Apo, los perros eran peligrosos, porque los había visto comer carne, pero los caballos le movieron confianza porque eran herbívoros.

(04.35) Efraín Trelles Atahualpa was going to save three of the Spaniards.


05.53 Narrator continues. Para apropiarse de los caballos dejaron entrar a los españoles y no los acabaron en cualquiera de los pasos de la cordillera. No les temían. Atahualpa se sentía hijo del Sol y, en tanto dios personificado, pensaba que su majestad sometería a cualquier mortal. Atahualpa vivía un momento particular de su vida, porque estaba exaltado por su victoria sobre Huascar y no tomó precauciones, sino que enfrentó los acontecimientos poseído por una fe ciega en su magnificencia.

06.26 José Antonio del Busto 

Tenía una voluntad extraordinariamente . . . si el decía que los pájaros no vuelen . . . los pajaros no volaban . . . porque se ordinaban todos los indios de Cuzco matan . . . el dia siguiente no hubieran . . .

06.47 Narrator continues. La hueste española entró a Cajamarca; de acuerdo a lo convenido con Apo, la ciudad estaba prácticamente abandonada y la plaza vacía. Pero, durante la entrada, en cada nueva elevación, los españoles observaron tiendas, pertrechos y campamentos militares. Una vez en Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro dispuso a su gente en tres grupos, guarecidos en las grandes habitaciones que daban a la plaza, denominadas “callancas”. En la más espaciosa ubicó a la caballería al mando de su hermano Hernando Pizarro y de otro Hernando, apellido de Soto, que luego fue conquistador de La Florida. La infantería estaba con él, en otra callanca de la plaza. Luego, envió una misión de veinte jinetes al mando de los dos Hernandos para entrevistarse con Atahualpa e invitarlo a venir a conversar a la plaza.

Los jinetes viajaron a los Baños del Inca, donde Atahualpa tenía su campamento real. Allí los recibió sentado en una alfombra y con la cabeza mirando al suelo. No les dirigió ni una mirada. No hablan la misma lengua, estaban incomunicados, salvo por dos intérpretes, Felipillo y Martinillo, ambos indios adolescentes raptados en ocasión del viaje anterior, que apenas dominaban ambos idiomas, puesto que ninguno de ellos era el suyo materno. Los intérpretes eran jóvenes comerciantes costeños que estando en una balsa habían sido raptados por los conquistadores. Ellos los había llevado hasta España y ahora retornaban como personajes cruciales de la empresa de conquista: los primeros mensajeros. (08.21)

End Clip 2. ________________________________________




Era el 14 de noviembre de 1532. Al caer la noche, los españoles montaron guardia y observaron muy asustados como, en todos los cerros que rodeaban la ciudad, el ejército inca prendía fogatas que encendían la oscuridad como millares de estrellas. Según un cronista, los hombres se orinaban de miedo en los pantalones, sin tomar conciencia de sus actos. En la mañana del día siguiente, 15 de noviembre, Atahualpa inició ritos que fueron seguidos por el ejército: se trataba de cantos rítmicos e incesantes, acompañados por coreografías en el sitio, sin desplazarse. Después de mediodía, los españoles se desesperaron y enviaron a uno de ellos a pie a apurar al inca; llegó hasta el campamento real, pero los indios no le prestaron mayor atención y continuaron su ceremonia.

Hacia las tres de la tarde, el Inca inició su marcha hacia Cajamarca; ingresó a la plaza de armas en andas, cargado por miembros del grupo étnico de Lucanas, quienes tenían en gran honra ser los porteadores del soberano. También en andas, aunque detrás, se hallaba el señor del Chinchaysuyu, quien pereció más tarde ese día. Delante del anda iban unos indios que recogían todo guijarro del camino, para que marche sobre suelo parejo y el Inca no se incomode. Estos indios estaban vestidos en escaques rojos. Detrás suyo, marchaban músicos y una enorme comparsa que danzaba rítmicamente; no entró a la plaza ningún guerrero indígena, todos quedaron afuera. El Inca entró de ese modo porque iba a conversar con los españoles a invitarlos a pasarse a su bando. Atahualpa ingresó a un baile ritual, a una ceremonia del poder, creyendo que una banda de infelices no podía hacerle daño.

Cuando Atahualpa llegó a la plaza se sorprendió al verla vacía, él había esperado encontrar al jefe de los barbudos. En su reemplazo, apareció el sacerdote dominico Vicente de Valverde acompañado por Felipillo. Atahualpa le alcanzó al sacerdote español un vaso de oro lleno de chicha, para brindar en forma ritual y poder comenzar una conversación entre seres civilizados. Valverde se asustó, creyó que lo querían envenenar y arrojó la chicha al suelo. Atahualpa tomó este acto como una grave ofensa, pero se contuvo. Luego, el dominico leyó unos párrafos santos tomados de la Biblia, mientras crecía la rabia de Atahualpa, sentía que le leían frases incomprensibles y sin sentido; alcanzó a preguntar, ¿de dónde salen esas palabras? El fraile le contestó que del libro y se lo alcanzó. Al manipularlo, el Inca muy contrariado no entendió su contenido y lo arrojó lejos de sí.

En ese momento, Valverde dio la señal convenida, “Santiago a ellos” e irrumpió la caballería. En las patas de los corceles habían adherido campañillas para hacer fuerte ruido y su galope fue feroz, atropellaron a la gente para dispersarla y apartarla del inca. En el uschnu, una torrecilla que había en la plaza, estaba escondido Pedro de Candia, y dos artilleros, quienes, al grito de Valverde, dispararon un pequeño cañón, cuyo ruido contribuyó a sembrar el espanto. Los indios del cortejo se abalanzaron sobre los muros de la plaza, que era una construcción cerrada. Hubo una gran carnicería.

Liderando a los infantes, Pizarro se dirigió directamente hacia Atahualpa. Al llegar al pie del anda, los españoles aniquilaron a espadazos a los porteadores buscando que caiga el Inca; pero, ante el asombro generalizado de todos los cronistas que estuvieron presentes, los caídos eran reemplazados por otros cargadores que no luchaban, simplemente seguían cargando al Inca y se dejaban matar. En ese momento, un español perdió la compostura y trató de asesinar a Atahualpa atravesándolo con una lanza, Francisco Pizarro se interpuso y cogió la lanza con su mano. Esa fue la única sangre española que corrió aquel día. Finalmente cayó el anda, el inca fue atrapado y llevado preso. La caballería persiguió a los dispersos y alcanzó hasta el real de Atahualpa, donde obtuvieron un cuantioso botín.

A la mañana siguiente, los guardias españoles avistaron un grupo de indios que se acercaban a la plaza. Creyendo que era el ejército de Atahualpa que venía a rescatarlo, levantaron a los suyos y se aprestaron al combate. Pero, estaban equivocados. Eran los cañaris, que venían a incorporarse a su bando. Era tal su odio contra Atahualpa, que fueron el primer grupo étnico que tomó partido por los europeos. Para proponer formalmente una alianza, los cañaris traían diversos regalos, incluyendo mujeres, que les entregaron a los españoles. Pizarro supo que su plan comenzaba a tener éxito. En efecto, los españoles llevaban cuarenta años en América, ya habían pasado las conquistas del Caribe y de México, por lo tanto tenían una experiencia acumulada en las guerras contra los nativos. Esa experiencia se traducía en una estrategia que guió las dos conquistas principales: aztecas e incas. El plan consistía en capturar al monarca en una primera emboscada y luego atizar las contradicciones entre los indios, para desatar una guerra entre nativos, que les permita apoderarse del país.

Después de reponerse de la impresión de verse prisionero, Atahualpa decidió negociar. Habiendo tomado conciencia de la codicia europea por los metales preciosos, ofreció un rescate. Una expedición de la alta nobleza inca, acompañada por un escuadrón de caballería español, dirigido por Hernando Pizarro, salió hacia el santuario de Pachacamac para saquear las riquezas del antiguo oráculo costeño. En forma paralela, Atahualpa reunió una pequeña corte consigo y ordenó que algunas de las hijas de Huayna Capac vinieran para entregarlas a los principales conquistadores y entablar de ese modo relaciones de parentesco. En ese grupo llegó una joven alegre llamada Quispe Sisa, que era hija de Huayna Capac y de la poderosa curaca de Huaylas. Aparentemente, Pizarro quedó prendado de la joven, pues participó de una ceremonia andina de compromiso y la tomó como mujer. Bautizada como Inés Huaylas, ella le dio dos hijos al conquistador, que fueron los primeros que tuvo en su larga vida, no obstante que ya era casi un anciano. La hija mayor fue llamada Francisca, doña Pancha, y años después, consolidaría la fortuna y los títulos de nobleza de los Pizarro al casarse con su tío Hernando en España.

Mientras tanto, los españoles recibieron refuerzos, porque arribó Diego de Almagro con una nueva tropa que duplicó el número de la hueste hispana. Este segundo grupo no había participado de la captura del inca y por lo tanto carecía de derechos sobre el botín. Ellos querían continuar la conquista y presionaban para ajusticiar al Inca, ya que su prisión mantenía estancadas las operaciones. Lo lograron y Atahualpa fue ahorcado por medio del garrote. Durante la prisión del Inca, los españoles habían recibido la visita de los curacas cañaris, chachapoyas y huancas para sellar una alianza contra Atahualpa. Estos grupos étnicos habían sido conquistados por los cuzqueños y aspiraban a recuperar su autonomía. Creyeron que tenían una gran oportunidad sumándose a este nuevo poder que había irrumpido en los Andes. Entre otros, estos tres grupos fueron claves en la conquista porque guerrearon a favor de los europeos.

Poco después de ajusticiar a Atahualpa, Pizarro se dirigió al Cuzco. Nombró un inca títere, pero murió envenenado poco después de haber emprendido la marcha. Conciente que requería un inca de su lado, Pizarro buscó una segunda opción y la encontró en la persona de Manco Inca, que también era hijo de Huayna Capac, con la coya Mama Runtu, una integrante de la alta nobleza cuzqueña. En las guerras civiles entre los incas, Manco había combatido del lado de Huascar. En este momento, Manco participó de la lucha por el Cuzco a la vanguardia de un ejército integrado por los suyos, partidarios de Huascar, sumados a los españoles, chachapoyas, cañaris y huancas. Ese ejército combatió contra las tropas de Quisquis, que había sido un importante general de Atahualpa. Quisquis abandonó el Cuzco, pero salvó a su gente y cruzó con ellos todo el Tawantinsuyu, en un viaje épico de retroceso estratégico, para reaparecer en la región norteña de donde era originario. El general quiteño moriría defendiendo su región natal en un episodio posterior de la conquista.

De este modo, Pizarro entró al Cuzco de la mano de Manco, quien le abrió las puertas de la ciudad sagrada de los incas. Poco después se encendieron las disputas entre los españoles y Diego de Almagro partió para la frustrante conquista de Chile, basada en la infundada aspiración de encontrar otra gran civilización andina. La expedición de Almagro estuvo integrada por un grupo de aristócratas incas, incluyendo nada menos que al sumo sacerdote, el Vilac Umu. Los españoles se dividieron a cumplir diversas tareas después de recibir considerables refuerzos. En 1536 ya eran dos mil soldados hispanos en el Perú.

Inicialmente, los Pizarro habían organizado la conquista como una empresa privada. Ellos habían financiado la expedición, hallado socios y juntado la gente. Por su parte, los integrantes de la hueste aportaban su propia cuota, financiaban su alimentación, compraban sus armas, eventualmente su caballo y valorizaban cada uno de sus aportes. En este sentido, los conquistadores eran una compañía, que firmaba una concesión con el Rey de España, en este caso la famosa Capitulación de Toledo. El monarca les concedía el derecho a conquistar un determinado territorio a cambio del 20% de todo lo el botín que recogieran. Pero, con el Rey llegarían los funcionarios reales y sus órdenes que luego normarán el régimen colonial. En este sentido, la conquista fue obra de una partida de soldados empresarios, funcionando como avanzada del Imperio español, que se hallaba viviendo una gigantesca expansión en todo el planeta. Estaba comenzando el capitalismo mundial.

Al llegar 1536, Manco Inca había tomado conciencia de que el dominio español implicaba el sometimiento a un nuevo poder que trascendía al mundo andino. Ese año se produjo el levantamiento de los incas y el llamado a sublevación de todos los andinos contra los invasores europeos. Empleando una estratagema, Manco salió del Cuzco y juntó a su gente en Yucay donde llamó a la rebelión. Comenzó la resistencia general. Manco dividió sus tropas en tres ejércitos. El primero fue enviado contra los huancas, para castigarlos por su apoyo a los españoles y para anunciar que el Inca no aceptaría más el colaboracionismo. El segundo fue dirigido contra Lima y tenía por consigna, “a la mar barbudos”, queriendo echar a los españoles del mundo andino y obligarlos a regresar por dónde habían venido. El tercer ejército de Manco se lanzó a reconquistar el Cuzco y aniquilar a los españoles que habían hollado la capital sagrada.

El cerco del Cuzco se prolongó casi todo ese año, pero al llegar la temporada de labores agrícolas, Manco tuvo que licenciar a sus tropas porque era un ejército campesino que sumaba millares cuando tenían tiempo libre, pero que tenía pocos profesionales de la guerra. Los españoles habían resistido sostenidos por los cañaris y su momento de mayor angustia fue cuando Manco incendió el Cuzco y ellos se refugiaron en la iglesia del Triunfo. Cuando vieron que el cerco aflojaba, montaron una expedición que salió del Cuzco hacia el sur y dio la vuelta por las alturas para caer sobre la fortaleza templo de Saqsawaman, donde se habían concentrado los guerreros profesionales de Manco. La batalla fue tremenda, murió uno de los Pizarro, Juan, y sin embargo los españoles se impusieron. Al final resistió en una torre el mítico Cahuide, uno de los grandes capitanes de la resistencia indígena.

En forma paralela, un ejército inca puso cerco a Lima. En el camino recibieron el apoyo de los curacas locales del valle de Lima. Queda evidencia por ejemplo que los latis apoyaron al Inca, ellos tenían su centro en el moderno Ate. Para evitar a los caballos, intentaron tomar Lima por el río, puesto que las piedras dificultaban la maniobra de los equinos. El ejército de la resistencia inca estaba comandado por el general cuzqueño Quiso Yupanqui, quien murió peleando cuando los españoles recibieron refuerzos de los Huaylas. Francisco Pizarro había pedido ayuda a los parientes de su mujer y la madre de doña Inés, había enviado un ejército proveniente del callejón de Huaylas, para defender Lima con los hispanos contra los cuzqueños. De este modo, en cada una de las grandes batallas de la conquista, se hallan ejércitos de indígenas en ambos bandos, garantizando que al final el triunfo será de occidente. No se trató solamente de una superior tecnología militar, sino sobre todo de una capacidad política para desintegrar un imperio antiguo, de composición multiétnica, que no resistió la presión y se fragmentó ante el choque de civilizaciones. Luego, Manco Inca se refugió en la fortaleza templo de Ollantaitambo; el inca estaba iniciando su largo exilio interior, que culminó en las montañas de Vilcabamba. Allí, los últimos incas iban a durar cuarenta años de vana y heroica resistencia. The Conquest of Tawantinsuyu – (the Empire of the Four Regions /Quarters / Inca Empire)

0.27 Toni Zapata and Benito

Zapata: Hey, Benito. Today we are going to present the programme about the conquest of the Incas. Benito: The Tawantinsuyu. Zapata: A classic story of Peruvian history, Benito, which unfortunately they sometimes tell really badly. Benito: Why? Zapata: Because they say that a group of just 170 Spaniards defeated an empire of 12 millions of people in Cajamarca. Benito: That’s impossible, Professor. Zapata (00.50): And it wounds the self-esteem of the Peruvians. And above all you know that it is not true because actually this group of Spaniards – speaking about them first – were the advance guard of Westerners / Europeans (civilisation / had the trappings of Western technology) and had forty years of (campaign) experience because Columbus had arrived in the New World (1492) forty years before Pizarro got to Peru (in 1532). Benito: OK. Zapata: In any case they had a plan. Benito: What was it, Professor? Zapata: Capture the Inca. Benito: OK. Zapata: In an ambush, capture the sovereign and from there dismember the political entity / infrastructure of the indigenous people. Benito: The strategy of chess. Zapata: Exactly, capture the king (Inka) and win the match. Benito: Check-mate.


1.37 Efraín Trelles The conquest was an economic enterprise not an Iberian one. Secondly it was undertaken privately. It wasn’t the Spanish state which was the conqueror. The conquistadors financed it themselves and for the risks they took on they received the surplus labour of the native American.

2.01 José Antonio del Busto The conquest was neither to be grieved over nor to be applauded. It happened. The Inca empire was not perfect. Neither was the Spanish. They were two human realities, two distinct systems of logic, two modes of thought, and two cultures which collided with each other and . . .


2.33 Section La Conquista –Narration / voiceover

The end of the Inca Empire was foretold (announced/ forseen/ ordained) (in 1531) at the time/when Huayna Capac was ruler (that is the Inca . . but disputed) and governing from Quito. At that time, the Inca (King) received news of the second voyage of the Spaniards.

2.54 Pizarro had landed in Tumbes, then he had returned to his caravel and continued down the coast until Chan Chan (the old Chimu city) was sighted / had come into view. There he decided to return to Spain to fit out a more adequate expedition as the incario was more than a match for his limited forces. Then the old Inca became ill and his successor had already been designated. Epidemics struck. This time it was smallpox, a disease from the Old World which (whose germs / bacteria?) travelled (traveled US) faster than the conquistadors and attacked - with extremely high death rates - populations which were lacking adequate defences. Both . . . . died and created a dangerous power vacuum in the Inca Empire.


3.40 Gabriela Ramos Nobody could do anything in the face of these epidemics nor did they understand anything about them at that time. The Spaniards thought of them as a type of special help which they received by virtue of their being Christian. 4.00 Voiceover

The mother of Huascar was the Coya and on the death of Huayna Capac, she quickly left Quito for Cuzco, where she proclaimed her son the new Inca.

José Antonio del Busto 4.11 Huascar was not quite right for the job. I smile when I say that Huascar’s life was similar to that of a playboy. He was a person who lacked discipline and objectivity and lived only to enjoy himself. He wasn’t the dignified successor to Hayna Capac, nor a . . . grandson to Tupac Yupanki or . . .Pachacutec.

4.36 Narative Voiceover 4.36 But Huascar began his government with radical measures. The new monarch sought to limit the power of the families of the imperial nobility (called panacas) because they had extended their power excessively and a huge expanse of territory was being privatised by the aristocracy of Cuzco.


Guillermo Cock 4.51 Every panaca, every inca and his descendents were taking over complete valleys and converting their populations into yanaconas and these were depending directly on them. This made the management of the state more complex because on the one hand it took these people out of the direct control of the Inca and added also other intermediaries. If the state needed something from this zone, if they needed people / labour from this area it had to go to the clan(s’) chieftain(s) of Cuzco.


5.31 Narative Voiceover The decisions of Huascar were resisted by the great aristocratic families and some rebelled, calling on Atahualpa to lead an uprising against the newly proclaimed Inca. For his part, Atahualpa was also a son of Huayna Capac and he, along with part of the court, had accompanied his father to Quito. ________________________________________ End of clip 1.


Video clip: conquista2.flv







Narrator continues. Atahualpa was defeated in an early battle and became a prisoner of the Cañaris, an ethnic group whose territory was located in the highlands of what is today Ecuador. But that night Atahualpa escaped from prison. He related how he had become a snake and had gained his freedom through the bars of the prison cell. According to his version he was a god and because of that he was invincible.

00.33 José Antonio del Busto (The legend and defeats of Huascar and Atahualpa)

00.52 Narrator continues. Atahualpa managed to dominate the very brutal civil war between the Incas and achieved a hard-won victory. Huascar had given the command to several generals who had been defeated. He then took over direction of the war himself with an outcome which was worse for his cause, for he was taken prisoner. It was the fateful year of 1532.



Whilst in Cajamarca, Atahualpa was informed of the reappearance of the hombres barbudos (the men with beards) who (had) crossed the sea. He decided to halt his triumphal march to Cuzco and to receive the foreigners that had intrigued his father. The Inca capital has (already) been captured by General Quisquis loyal to Atahualpa, who had unleashed a ferocious repression on those of the aristocracy who had supported the defeated (Huascar) Inca in Cuzco. In Jauja in the centre of the Tawantinsuyu another army of Atahualpa was stationed, under the command of General Calcuchimac.

On the third voyage of conquest, the Spaniards again landed in Tumbes. They engaged in battles with the inhabitants. The land was ravaged by the civil war between (factions of) the Incas. Unlike the previous voyage, the Spanish did not find the same degree of order and friendliness. They continued their march towards (what today is) Piura. When they were crossing the Sechura desert a messenger from Atahualpa appeared. He was disguised as an ordinary Indian. He was called Apo and mixed among the Indians who followed the Spanish soldiers as carriers and vendors. Apo was far too enquiring whilst in the Spanish camp and prompted the anger of Hernando Pizarro, who was the only hildago (gentleman / courteous p.) of the four brothers Pizarro. Hernando kicked at Apo and on falling the turban, which had hidden his large ears, came undone. Apo was identified as an Orejón (large–eared) or member of the Inca aristocracy. When he had stood up, the Indians fell prostrate on their knees. The Spanish realized that they were faced with a royal spy and treated him with caution. He was handed a goblet / glass of Venice crystal and two silk shirts (from India?) as gifts to take to the Inca. 18/07/2009 21:34:09 ________________________________________

The Spaniards reached what is now Lambayeque and when they were near the cordillera Apo returned. Click on graphic to see original of this Huaman Poma frame in the Royal Danish Library in Copenhagen. (03.23)

This time he came as an ambassador, and was carried in a litter or sedan chair and had brought a gift from Atahualpa, which included a model of a fortress and three skinned ducks. Pizarro was taken aback and interpreted the gift as a sign that Atahualpa was confident in his strength and was threatening to harm them. Furthermore, Apo invited them to Cajamarca to meet the Inca who indicated that he wished to receive them.

Apo returned to Atahualpa, telling him what he had seen and they together worked out a plan, which was to seize the Spaniards’ horses. The animal gene pool of the Tawantinsuyu was rather limited - there was no animal with the possibility of being ridden/mounted or used for ploughing / plowing. All agriculture and transportation were on foot. The camelids were beautiful animals, but it wasn’t a bad idea to get hold of animals which would be able to transform the economic and political life of Tawantinsuyu. According to the opinion of Apo, the dogs were dangerous because they had been seen to eat meat, but the horses had won them over because they were herbivores.

(04.35) Efraín Trelles Atahualpa was going to save three of the Spaniards.


05.53 Narrator continues. To seize the horses they the Incas would let the Spaniards enter (Cajamarca) and not deal with (kill them, finish them off) them in one of the mountain passes. The Incas were not afraid. Atahualpa was the son of the Sun and, as such the personification of God. It was thought that his majesty could not submit to any mortal. Atahualpa was at a special moment in his life because he was exaltado by his victory over Huascar and did not take precautions, but faced events transfixed by a blind faith in his own ?magnificence.

06.26 José Antonio del Busto

06.47 Narrator continues. The Spanish column entered Cajamarca; as agreed with Apo, the city was virtually abandoned and the square empty. But, when they entered each new elevación, the Spaniards noted shops, stores and military camps. Once in Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro ordered his men into three groups taking shelter in large structures (rooms) called callancas that gave out onto the main square. In the most spacious area he put the cavalry commanded by his brother Hernando Pizarro and the other Hernando - surname “de Soto” – the conquistador of Florida. The infantry was with him in another callanca of the square. Then he sent a detachment of twenty horsemen under the command of the two Hernandos to meet Atahualpa and ¿invite¿ him to come and talk in the plaza.

The riders travelled to the Baños del Inca, where Atahualpa had his actual camp. There he received them sitting on a carpet and with his head bowed / looking downwards. He did not even glance at them. They did not speak the same language, were incommunicado except for the two interpreters Felipillo and Martinillo two Indians kidnapped as adolescents during the previous expedition. They hardly dominated both languages (Spanish and Quechua), as neither was their mother tongue. The interpreters were young coastal traders who were on a raft (explain balsa: Quechua) which had been captured by the conquistadors. They had been taken to Spain and now were returning as key characters in the enterprise of conquest: the first “messengers”. (08.21)

End Clip 2. ________________________________________

It was November 14, 1532. At nightfall, the Spaniards mounted guard and looked on (increasingly frightened) as they saw how on all the hills surrounding the city, the Incan army lit bonfires that illuminated the darkness as if with thousands of stars. According to one chronicler, the men wet their pants / trousers in fear – unconsciously. On the following morning, November 15, Atahualpa and his army started up a sequence of rites and rituals - rhythmic and relentless chants accompanied by ritual-dances on the on the same site. They never moved far. After noon, the Spaniards despaired and sent one of them walk to hasten the Inca reached the royal camp, but the Indians gave it more attention and continued their ceremony.

Towards three in the afternoon, the Inca began their march towards Cajamarca, entered the square in litter, carried by members of the ethnic group Lucanas, who were greatly honored to be carriers of the sovereign. Also in doing, but behind, was the lord of the Chinchaysuyu, who died later that day. Iban walks in front of the Indians gathered around a pebble path, that runs on land and even the Inca was not uncomfortable. These Indians were clothed in red squares. Behind him, marching musicians and a great extra that danced rhythmically not entered the plaza no indigenous warriors, were all out. The Incas entered so it was going to talk to the Spaniards to invite them to migrate to your side. Atahualpa entered a dance ritual, a ceremony of power, believing that a band could not hurt unhappy.

When Atahualpa arrived at the plaza was surprised to see it empty, he had expected to find the bearded leader. In his replacement, was a Dominican priest Vicente de Valverde, accompanied by Felipillo. Atahualpa him to a Spanish priest gold cup full of chicha, to provide in the form and ritual to begin a conversation among civilized beings. Valverde got scared, thought you wanted to poison and thrown to the ground chicha. Atahualpa took this act as a serious offense, but was contained. Then, the Dominican saints read a few paragraphs taken from the Bible, growing anger Atahualpa felt it read sentences incomprehensible and meaningless, was to ask, where does it leave those words? The monk replied that the book and it was. By manipulating the Inca was very disappointed he did not understand its contents and threw it away from them.

At that time, Valverde gave the signal agreed "to Santiago" and the cavalry burst. At the feet of the horses had bells adhered to loud noise and was fierce gallop, run over people and to disperse away from the Inca. In uschnu, which had a turret on the plaza was hiding Pedro de Candia, and two gunners, who, to the cry of Valverde, fired a small cannon, which helped sow the noise espanto. The courtship of Indians swooped on the walls of the plaza, a building that was closed. There was a great slaughter.

Leading infants Pizarro headed straight to Atahualpa. Upon arriving at the foot of the walk, the Spaniards annihilated espadazos to carriers seeking to topple the Inca, but generalized to the astonishment of all the columnists who were present, those who died were replaced by other shippers who do not fight, just still loading the Inca and were left to kill. At that time, a Spanish lost his composure and tried to kill with a spear through it Atahualpa, Francisco Pizarro intervened and took the spear with his hand. That was the only Spanish blood that ran that day. Finally got going, the Inca was caught and taken prisoner. The cavalry pursued the scattered and reached up to real Atahualpa, which obtained a large booty.

The next morning, the guards spotted a group of Canadian Indians who came to the square. Believing that it was the army of Atahualpa who came to rescue him, raised his family and to prepare to fight. But they were wrong. Were Canaris, who came to join his side. Such was his hatred of Atahualpa, who were the first ethnic group that stood by Europeans. To formally propose an alliance, bringing Canaris various gifts, including women, who handed them to the Spaniards. Pizarro knew that his plan was beginning to succeed. Indeed, the Spaniards took forty years in America, had already passed the conquests of Mexico and the Caribbean, therefore had an experience in the wars against the natives. That experience resulted in a strategy that led the two major achievements: Aztecs and Incas. The plan was to capture the first monarch in an ambush and then stir the contradictions among the Indians, to unleash a war between natives, allowing them to take over the country.

After you get over the feeling of being captive, Atahualpa decided to negotiate. Having become aware of the greed for precious metals Europe, offered a ransom. An expedition to the Inca nobility, accompanied by a squadron of Spanish cavalry, led by Hernando Pizarro, came to the sanctuary of Pachacamac to plunder the riches of the ancient oracle coast. In parallel, Atahualpa met with a small court and ordered that some of the daughters of Huayna Capac came to deliver the most engaging and conquerors thus kinship relations. In this group became known as a happy couple Quispe Sisa, who was the daughter of Huayna Capac and the powerful curaca de Huaylas. Apparently, Pizarro was fascinated by the young, as part of an Andean ceremony took commitment and a woman. Dubbed Inés Huaylas, she gave two sons to the conqueror, who were the first who had in his long life, however, that it was almost an old man. The eldest daughter was named Francisca, Doña Pancha, and years later, would fortune and titles of nobility from Pizarro to marry his uncle Ferdinand in Spain.

Meanwhile, the Spaniards received reinforcements, because Diego de Almagro arrived with a new army, which has doubled the number of Hispanic host. This second group had not participated in the capture of the Inca and therefore had no rights to the loot. They wanted to fight and pressed for the Inca executed because his prison operations remained stagnant. And succeeded Atahualpa was hanged by the club. During the prison of the Inca, the Spaniards had been visited curaca of Canaris, and Chachapoyas Huancas to seal an alliance against Atahualpa. These ethnic groups were conquered by the Cuzco and were hoping to regain their autonomy. They believed they had a great opportunity to join this new power had appeared in the Andes. Among others, these three groups were key in winning that war on behalf of the Europeans.

Soon after to execute Atahualpa, Pizarro went to Cuzco. Appointed a puppet Inca, poisoned but died shortly after having undertaken the march. Conscious for a disability on their side, a second option Pizarro sought and found in the person of Manco Inca, who was also a son of Huayna Capac, the Coya Mama Runtu, a member of the nobility Cuzco. In the civil wars among the Incas, Manco had fought on the side of Huascar. At this time, Manco part of the struggle for Cuzco in the vanguard of an army composed of his own supporters in Huascar, coupled with the Spaniards, Chachapoyas, and Huancas Canaris. That army fought against the troops of Quisquis, who had been a major general of Atahualpa. Quisquis left Cuzco, but he saved his people and passed them around the Tawantinsuyu in an epic journey of strategic retreat, to reappear in the northern region where it originates. The general Quito died defending his home region in a later episode of the conquest.

Thus, Pizarro entered Cuzco at the hands of Manco, who opened the doors of the sacred city of the Incas. Shortly thereafter ignited disputes between Spaniards and Diego de Almagro departed frustrating for the conquest of Chile, based on unfounded desire to find another great Andean civilization. The issue of Almagro was composed by a group of aristocrats Incas, including none other than the high priest, the umu Vilac. The Spaniards were divided to perform various tasks after receiving substantial reinforcements. In 1536 and Hispanics were two thousand soldiers in Peru.

Initially, Pizarro had organized the conquest as a private company. They had financed the expedition, found partners and people together. For their part, members of the heavenly troops share their own, financed their food, buy their weapons, eventually recovered his horse and each of their contributions. In this sense, the conquerors were a company, which signed a concession with the King of Spain, in this case the famous capitulation of Toledo. The king granted them the right to conquer a territory in exchange for 20% of all the loot they gather. But with the King and royal officials would reach him and then regulate the colonial regime. In this sense, the conquest was the work of a business line of soldiers, working as a Spanish outpost of Empire, which was experiencing a massive expansion across the globe. Global capitalism was beginning.

When you reach 1536, Manco Inca had realized that mastering Spanish meant subjection to a new power that went beyond the Andean world. That year saw the lifting of the Incas and the call to all the Andean uprising against the invading Europeans. Using a ruse, Manco left Cuzco and joined his people in Yucay which called for the rebellion. Overall resistance began. Manco divided their forces into three armies. The first was sent against Huancas, to punish them for their support of the Spanish and Inca to announce that the collaboration would not agree more. The second was directed at Lima and was recorded, "the bearded sea, trying to put the Spaniards in the Andean world and force them to return where they came. The third army Manco was launched to retake Cuzco and annihilate the Spaniards who had trodden the sacred capital.

The siege of Cuzco lasted almost throughout the year, but to reach the farming season, Manco had to license his troops because he was a peasant army that had joined thousands when free time, but had few professional soldiers. The Spaniards had resisted sustained by Canaris and his moment of greatest anguish was burned when Manco Cuzco, and they took refuge in the church of Triumph. When they saw that the noose loose, mounted an expedition left Cuzco to the south and turned around by the hills to fall on the strength of Saqsawaman temple, where the Warriors had focused professionals Manco. The battle was tremendous, one died of Pizarro, Juan, but the Spaniards were imposed. At the end stood a tower in the mythical Cahuide, one of the great masters of the indigenous resistance.

In parallel, an army siege of Lima Inca began. On the road received the support of the local valley curaca Lima. Evidence is such that latis supported the Inca, which had its center in the fashionable Tie. To prevent the horses, tried to take down the river Lima, as the stones hampering the movement of horses. The army of the Inca resistance was commanded by General Cuzco wanted Yupanqui, who died when fighting the Spaniards received reinforcements of Huaylas. Francisco Pizarro had asked for help to relatives of his wife and mother of Doña Inés, had sent an army from the Callejon de Huaylas, to defend Lima Cuzco against Hispanics. Thus, in each of the major battles of the conquest of indigenous armies are on both sides, ensuring that the end is the triumph of the west. It is not only a superior military technology, but of a political ability to break an old rule of multi-ethnic composition, which could not resist the pressure and fragmented before the clash of civilizations. Then, Manco Inca fled to the fortress temple Ollantaitambo, the Inca was beginning its long internal exile, culminating in the mountains of Vilcabamba. There, the last Inca iban last forty years of futile and heroic resistance.


Recursos en el sitio de Guaman Poma http://www.kb.dk/permalink/2006/poma/info/es/docs/index.htm

1978. Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala: An Andean View of the Peruvian Viceroyalty, 1565-1615. In: Journal de la Société des Américanistes, t. LXV: pp. 121-143, París






Works by indigenous authors – a Peruvian view of the “arrival” of the Spaniards

Within 50 years of the conquest many works were published which referred to the viceroyalty but only a few had the potential of representing the Andean view. Adorno (1978a) writes:


To this might be added another handful


________________________________________ MAIN TEXT









Introduction

Consider this text written in Cuzco- Quechua. Linda’s story

In Quechua




Within the last few decades historians have given greater attention to “voice” and “perspective”.

Voice Arguedas, Ossio (19..) and (Wachtel) were benchmarks in this process.

Perspective Different language editions provide space for various perspectives. For example this (British / European edition primarily in the) English language (OCE open collaborative editing) space provides an opportunity for focusing on a British-Peruvian perspective, the Francophone edition ditto for France, Canada –Peruvian


There are two zones:

A. The Library -- documents, including multimedia, accessible online via resources in the Biblioteca Nacional del Perú (BNP - The National Library of Peru) and other archives and sources.

B. The (new) Book – compiled by the reader / viewer by pasting and copying key elements selected from the Library and recording a linking narrative. (Readers and/or their tutorial group will author The Book.)

Language(s) of this edition: English / Spanish / Peruvian languages (Location of ‘target’ readers / students: mainly Anglophone countries / Britain).

Period of this topic: the arrival of Spaniards in Peru 1530-1580.


The Library


De Castro Yupangui, Diego. History of how the Spaniards arrived in Peru. By Diego de Castro Yupangui, Catherine J. Julien. Translated by Catherine J. Julien. Edition: illustrated. Published by Hackett Publishing, 2006. ISBN 0872208281, 9780872208285. 180 pages.

Starn, Orin. The Peru Reader: History, Culture, Politics (The Latin America Readers) by Orin Starn, Carlos Ivan Degregori, and Robin Kirk (Paperback - 30 Jan 2006)

Zapata, Antonio. Conquista del Tawantinsuyu. TVPeru series Sucedió en el Perú






Videos (includes DVD’s, TVi programmes etc)

Books

Articles

British contribution to Peruvianist scholarship


Other online materials Contenido Chapter 1. Introduction 1 History of this history 1 Histories for multi-heritage society 2 Tutorials 2 Historiography 2 Methodology 2 Conquest Sinquest Inquest 2

Chapter 1. Introduction These pages are editable – by any and every reader, tutor or student – should you or they so wish. Please add text and other media directly. Click edit. Please read notes re editing. Each “page” also has a discussion forum. History of this history

1492 and all that: methodology and historiography The new universities and Latin Americans in London 1987 Berkeley

1992 an alternative to the Columbus statue in Belgrave Square “Latin American History for Latin Americans in Europe” “Peruvian history for Peruvians in Europe” Robin Hood? Santiago de Chile conference Add Paris Add Lima projects post 2004 Histories for multi-heritage societies Designing a course for communities with multiple heritages, e.g. a British and a Peruvian heritage, (background / cultural roots) is challenging because of the differing options or combinations demanded (can of worms / no-no-brainer) so these documents on Peruvian history are offered in the form of a palette (database / collection) from which the teacher (tutor / lecturer) or student can compose their own version / course / tutorial. The collection is (should be) in the national libraries . Please see “Methodolgy” for sample tutorials.

(Accessibility) If a book, article, video – any document recommended is not in your library or accessible online please send letter (see format A) to the author and publisher requesting a deposit copy / rights to copy . . . .

Tutorials

and for the purpose of this discussion in English sample tutorial is offered [for British Peruvians in English and Spanish].  Please add tutorial outlines for your group: the more the merrier. The target student is the son or daughter of Peruvian parent(s) living in Britain. Clearly with materials in English the content could be “repurposed” for other groups worldwide who are “Anglophone” (English speaking or who can work in English)  

Historiography What might be called the British historiography debate

The British-Peruvian historiography debate

Peruvian historiography

Methodology


Why start with the “conquest”?

Why is the domain called www.peruearthquake.

How the Spaniards got into Peru (Tawantinsuyu)?

Collaborative education: what is it?

Diasporas and distributed learning. DKN

[Your country] British sources

Scholarship on Peru in [Your country] Britain


1

A gravity interpretation of the continental margin and Coastal Batholith, Peru. Haederle, J.M. 1987 University of Liverpool 1987 Abstract: 2 Privileged Peru : the Israelites of the New Universal Covenant. Scott, Kenneth David. 1988 University of Aberdeen 1988 Abstract: 3 The landed aristocracy in Peru : 1600-1680. Evans, Madelaine Glynne Dervel. 1972 University of London 1972 Abstract: 4 Overpopulation in the Central Andes of Peru. Hamilton, P. 1977 University of Aberdeen 1977 Abstract: 5 British business in Peru 1883-1930. Miller, R. M. 1978 University of Cambridge 1978 Abstract: 6 Agricultural development in Eastern Peru. Stapleton, A. K. 1969 University of Cambridge 1969 Abstract: 7 Tariff policies in Peru : 1880-1980. Bolona, C A. 1981 University of Oxford 1981 Abstract: 8 The religious encounter in mid-colonial Peru. Mills, Kenneth Reynold. 1991 University of Oxford 1991 Abstract: 9 Youth, power and identity in Arequipa, Peru Pyper, Neil Forbes. 2002 University of Liverpool 2002 Abstract: 10 Studies on Lutzomyia spp. vectors of leishmaniasis in Peru. Perez, J Enrique. 1995 University of Liverpool 1995 Abstract: 11 The mineralogy and textural history of the coastal batholith, Peru. Mason, G H. 1982 University of Liverpool 1982 Abstract: 12 Negotiating gender : women and emergency employment in Peru. Laurie, Nina. 1995 University of London 1995 Abstract: 13 Rural crime, social protest and resistance in Chile and Peru, 1850-1890. Dawe, John. 1996 University of Liverpool 1996 Abstract: 14 Poverty and vulnerability : a case study of Lima, Peru, 1985-1990. Hall, Gillette H. 1996 University of Cambridge 1996 Abstract: 15 Metallogenesis as related to crustal evolution in Southwest Central Peru. Hudson, C. 1974 Liverpool University 1974 Abstract: 16 The Lurin Valley, Peru, A.D. 1000-1532. Feltham, Patricia Jane. 1983 University of London 1983 Abstract: 17 Ecology of the birds of the dry cloud forests of western Peru. Franke, Irma. 1994 University of Aberdeen 1994 Abstract: 18 The Amarakaeri : An ethnographic account of Harakmbut people from southeastern Peru. Gray, A. 1983 University of Oxford 1983 Abstract: 19 Plan, market and money : A study of circulation in Peru. Bradby, B. 1982 University of Sussex 1982 Abstract: 20 Textile production and structural crisis : the case of the late colonial Peru. Zaugg, Monica. 1993 University of Liverpool 1993 Abstract: 21 The pre-Colombian pottery figurines of the central coast of Peru. Morgan, Alexandra. 1996 University of London 1996 Abstract: 22 Early Bourbon government in the viceroyalty of Peru, 1700-1759. Pearce, Adrian John. 1998 University of Liverpool 1998 Abstract: 23 The architecture of conquest : Building in the Viceroyalty of Peru, 1535-1635. Fraser, V. 1984 University of Essex 1984 Abstract: 24 Studying group dynamics : an alternative approach to the analysis of microfinance impacts on poverty reduction and its application in Peru Marr, Ana Miryam. 2003 University of London 2003 Abstract: 25 Epidemiology and control of canine leishmaniasis in Peru and Brazil Reithinger, Richard. 2004 University of London 2004 Abstract: 26 Popular participation and the state : democratising the health sector in rural Peru Bowyer, Timothy James. 2003 University of London 2003 Abstract: 27 Performing development : theatre and development with women in grassroots organisations, Lima, Peru Moser, Annalise. 2002 University of Cambridge 2002 Abstract: 28 Caudillismo in the age of Guano : a study in the political culture of mid-nineteenth century Peru : 1840-1860 Sobrevilla Perea, Natalia. 2005 University of London 2005 Abstract: 29 Satan's fortress and the devils of the in-between : the phenomenon of diabolism in colonial Peru (1560-1750) Redden, Andrew. 2004 University of Bristol 2004 Abstract: 30 Tour guides as interpreters of archaeological sites : heritage tourism in Cusco, Peru McGrath, Gemma M. 2005 University of Surrey 2005 31 The Evangelical Church & human rights in Peru LoÌ?pez, DariÌ?o. 1997 Oxford Centre for Mission Studies ; 1997 Abstract: 32 Professional health promoters? : re-conceptualising urban women's organising in Peru Jenkins, Katherine. 2005 University of Newcastle upon Tyne 2005 Abstract: 33 Investigations into the preservation and degradation of organic nitrogen in sediments from the Benguela and Peru upwelling systems Bickers, Claire Marie. 2006 University of Bristol 2006 Abstract: 34 Locals and professionals : participatory approaches to protected area management in Britain and Peru Morris, Breton Jake. 2004 University of Lancaster 2004 Abstract: 35 Wealth and philanthropy : the economic elite in Peru, 1916-1960 Portocarrero S., Felipe. 2006 University of Oxford 2006 Abstract: 36 Architecture and society at Huambacho (800-200 B.C.), NepenÌ?a Valley, Peru Chicoine, David. 2006 University of East Anglia

Abstract: 37 State reform and resilient powers : teachers, culture and the neoliberal education reform in Peru Oliart, Patricia. 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Abstract: 38 Abundance and ecology of high-Andean Polylepis birds in Peru : implications for habitat management strategies Lloyd, Huw. 2007 Manchester Metropolitan University

Abstract: 39 Consumption and wellbeing : motives for consumption and needs satisfiers in Peru GuilleÌ?n Royo, MoÌ?nica. 2007 University of Bath

Abstract: 40 Implementing the clean development mechanism : an integrated assessment of small energy projects in Peru Solís García, Karla del Pilar. 2007 University of Surrey

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41 Key factors for the implementation of successful, stand-alone village electrification schemes in Peru Sanchez-Campos, Teodoro. 2006 Nottingham Trent University

Abstract: 42 Sustenance, identity and voice : womenâ??s experiences in craft producer associations in Southern Peru Forstner, Kathrin. 2008 University of East Anglia

Abstract: 43 The Social Basis of Peasant Political Activity : The Case of the Huasicanchinos of Central Peru. Alderson Smith, G. 1975 University of Sussex

Abstract: 44 Development problems in an Export Economy : A study of domestic capitalists, foreign firms and government in Peru, 1919-1930. Bertram, I. G. 1974 University of Oxford

Abstract: 45 By the sweat of their brows changing and maintaining the 'structures of domination' in Andean Peru. Conlin, S. 1976 University of Sussex

Abstract: 46 Highland peasants and rural development in southern Peru : the colca valley and the majes project. Hurley, W. 1978 University of Oxford

Abstract: 47 Locality, Kinship and Ceremonial Kinship. A Study of The Social Organization of the Comunidad De Andamarca, Ayacucho - Peru. Ossio, J. M. 1979 University of Oxford

Abstract: 48 Economy, Ideology and Political Struggle in the Andean Highlands: A Study of Peasant Protest in Southern Peru. Sanchez, R. 1977 University of Sussex

Abstract: 49 Duality and land reform among the quechua Indians of highland peru. Skar, H. O. 1979 University of Oxford

Abstract: 50 Traces of terror : photography and memory of politial violence in Argentina and Peru Richardson, Alexia. 2008 University of Durham

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51 Metallogenesis as related to crustal evolution in Southwest Central Peru. Hudson, G. 1974 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 52 Late Quaternary palaeoceanography of the Peru Margin. King, Stephen Charles. 1993 University of Southampton

Abstract: 53 The investigations for the archaeomagnitudes for Ancient ceramics from China and Peru. Yang, Shanlin. 1993 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 54 Agrarian change on Peru's northern coast in the late twentieth century : a case study of rice farming in Ferranafe Jobling, Andrew. 2001 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 55 Reproductive ecology of female South American fur seals at Punta San Juan, Peru. Majluf Chiok, Maria Patricia J. 1987 University of Cambridge

Abstract: 56 The mechanical formation of vein structures as fluid flow pathways in Peru margin sediments and the Monterey formation, California. Brothers, Richard John. 1995 University of Southampton

Abstract: 57 The language left at Ticlio : social and cultural perspectives on Quechua loss in Lima, Peru. Marr, Timothy Gordon. 1998 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 58 Travelling to Peru : representation, identity and place in British long-haul tourism. Desforges, L C. 1997 University of London

Abstract: 59 Music and musicians in colonial Cuzco Baker, Geoffrey. 2002 University of London

Abstract: 60 Taking part : a study of adolescent sexual health promotion in Peru Ramella, Marcelo. 2002 University of London

Abstract: 61 The external political and economic relations of Peru since 1959, with special reference to the United States. Pratt, B S. 1981 University of Cambridge

Abstract: 62 Inca and pre-Inca pottery : pottery from Cusichaca, Department of Cuzco, Peru. Lunt, Sara Wendy. 1987 University of London

Abstract: 63 At a crossroads : social sciences and the novel in Peru; parallel readings of 'Todas las sangres' by Jose Maria Argvedas. Moore, Melissa. 1998 University of London

Abstract: 64 Household, community and market in the Upper Cunas, Peru : a re-examination of the effects of capitalism. Soria, Gloria Magdalena Schuemperli. 1988 University of Cambridge

Abstract: 65 The role, origins and strategies of business groups in Peru. Vasquez Huaman, Eduardo Enrique. 1995 University of Oxford

Abstract: 66 New finance capital : financial groups and systemic optimisation in Peru. Alcorta, Augusto Luis. 1990 University of Sussex

Abstract: 67 Power and the popular : popular culture and communications in two shanty towns of Arequipa, Peru. Bullen, Margaret Louise. 1991 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 68 Continuity and change in the formative period of the Cusichaca Valley, Department of Cuzco, Peru. Hey, Gillian Margaret. 1999 University of London

Abstract: 69 Textural development in granitoid rocks : a case study from the zoned Linga superunit of the coastal Batholith, Peru. Bryon, David Norman. 1992 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 70 The relation between deformation, granite source type and crustal growth : Peru. Petford, Nicholas. 1990 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 71 Workers, the state, and radical politics in Peru in the early 1930s. Drinot de Echave, Paulo. 2000 University of Oxford

Abstract: 72 Devaluation and the balance of trade : a critical review of the theory and estmation of trade elasticities for Peru, 1850-1984. Bachrach, Miguel. 1989 University of Cambridge

Abstract: 73 The epidemiology and control of fasciolosis in Cajamarca, Peru. Claxton, John Richard. 1996 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 74 Eshawa! : vision voice and mythic narrative; an ethnographic presentation of Ese-eja mythopoeia. Burr, Gareth. 1997 University of Oxford

Abstract: 75 Class formation and class struggle in La Convencion, Peru : The case of Pintobamba Grande, 1940-75. Brass, T. 1981 University of Sussex

Abstract: 76 Crown, Clergy and revolution in Bourbon Peru : The diocese of Cuzco 1780-1814. Cahill, D.P. 1984 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 77 Problems in the transition to capitalism in the context of underdevelopment : Peru and the war of the pacific. Sommerlad, H. 1983 University of York

Abstract: 78 Latin America and the Great War : A study of the effects of the First World War on economic and social conditions in Peru and Chile. Henderson, S.P. 1984 University of East Anglia

Abstract: 79 The consolidation and crisis of the liberal oligarchic state in Peru : 1895-1933. D'Angelo, G.A. 1985 University of Essex

Abstract: 80 Language and the power of history : the discourse of bilinguals in Ocongate (Southern Peru). Harvey, Penelope M. 1987 University of London

Abstract: 81 A critical evaluation of the theology of mission of the National Evangelical Council of Peru (CONEP) from 1980 to 1992, with special reference to its understanding and practice of human rights. Rodriguez, Dario Lopez. 1997 Open University

Abstract: 82 Women and children first : a case study evaluation of the Wawa Wasi Programme in Peru. Perez-del-Aguila Coda, Violeta Rossana. 2000 University of East Anglia

Abstract: 83 Meeting women in court : a study of the gender history of Cajamarca, Peru, 1862-1900. Christiansen, Tanja. 2000 University of Oxford

Abstract: 84 Women's participation in microcredit schemes : evidence from Cajamarca and Lima (Peru). Wright, Katie. 2001 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 85 Do concepts of poverty matter? : an empirical investigation of the differences between a capability and a monetary assessment of poverty in Peru. Laderchi, Caterina Ruggeri. 2001 University of Oxford

Abstract: 86 Peasant economy, women's labour and differential forms of capitalist development : A comparative study in three contrasting situations in Peru and Chile. Campana, P. 1985 University of Durham

Abstract: 87 Peasant struggle and the agrarian reform : A case study from Cajamarca, Peru. Rainbird, H. 1980 University of Durham

Abstract: 88 Technological and institutional change among the Peruvian peasantry : A comparison of three regions at different levels of agricultural development. Cotlear, D. 1986 University of Oxford

Abstract: 89 The Peruvian educational reform of 1972 and its implementation in Ayacucho. Nunn, A.M. 1987 University of Sussex

Abstract: 90 The information system for IPM in subsistance potato production in Peru. Ortiz Oblitas, Oscar Ernesto. 1997 University of Reading

Abstract: 91 Comparing the Basque diaspora : ethnonationalism, transnationalism and the identity maintenance in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Peru, the United States of America and Uruguay. Totoricaguena, Gloria Pilar. 2000 University of London

Abstract: 92 Visual inspection plus human papillomavirus testing or liquid-based cytology : how best to control cervical cancer in Peru? Almonte Pacheco, Maribel Fatima. 2004 University of London

Abstract: 93 Language-in-education planning : PROEIB Andes and the consolidation of bilingual education policies in Bolivia, Peru, and Chile Taylor, Solange Goodrich. 2005 University of Oxford

Abstract: 94 Alleviating poverty in Latin America : neo-liberal reforms and their compensatory social programmes in Chile, Mexico and Peru Rodriguez-Ahumada, Mariano. 2007 University of Essex

Abstract: 95 The raw and the cooked in common places : art, anthropology and relational aesthetics between Thailand, Euro-America, India and Peru Dohmen, Renate. 2006 University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Abstract: 96 Sixteenth Century European thought and its Influence on Spanish Colonial Policy Towards the Indians in Peru with Particular Reference to the Period 1532 - 1542. Gold, D. J. 1977 University of Oxford

Abstract: 97 Travelling to Peru : representation, identity and place in British long-haul tourism. Desforges, Luke Christopher. 1997 University of London

Abstract: 98 Humoral immune response to Fasciola hepatica in experimentally infected calves and in cattle naturally exposed to fasciolosis in Cajamarca, Peru. Oblitas, Pedro Luis Ortiz. 1997 University of Liverpool

Abstract: 99 Export led growth and inter firm linkages : a theoretical exploration and an empirical study of the relationship between large export oriented and small domestically oriented enterprises in the apparel industry in Peru Togo, Eriko. 2001 London School of Economics and Political Science (University of London)

Abstract: 100 Environmental risk factors for malaria : a matched case-control study in Piura, Peru. Guthmann, Jean-Paul. 2000 University of London

Abstract: 101 Catholic icons and society in colonial Spanish America : the Peruvian earthquake Christs of Lima and Cusco, and other comparative cults. Locke, Adrian Knight. 2001 University of Essex

Abstract: 102 Legal discourses and practises on domestic violence in Peru with particular reference to Andean communities. Estremadoyro-Vermejo, Julieta Ana Teresa. 2000 University of Warwick

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103

The development of pre-Hispanic geometric art forms in Peru, seen as an outgrowth of textile techniques and their influence upon art forms and depiction of symbols. Mackay, W.I. 1987 University of Saint Andrews

Abstract: 104 Can clinical audit, an intervention to influence medical practice, improve the diagnosis of smear negative tuberculosis in three Latin American countries? Siddiqi, Kamran 2006 University of Leeds

Abstract: Background Clinical audit is an intervention designed to improve the quality of clinical care. Although well established in high income countries, there is little research evidence for its effectiveness in resource poor settings. Aims and objectives I aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical audit in influencing clinical practice in providing diagnostic care for patients with ~uspected TB. Methods A total of 26 health centres were recruited in total in Cuba, Peru and Bolivia. Clinical audit was introduced to improve the diagnostic care for patients attending with suspected TB. Standards were based on the WHO and TB programme guidelines relating to the appropriate use of microscopy, culture and radiological investigations. At least two audit cycles were completed over two years. Impr...

105

LATIN AMERICAN CO-PRODUCTION CINEMA: ECONOMICS AND HEGEMONY SINCE 1980 VILLAZANA, LIBIA M. 2008 University of the West of England

Abstract: This thesis focuses on the study of the unfolding causes• and effects of the mechanisms of international film co-production, specifically those organised between Spain and Latin American countries since the 1980s. In doing so, it discusses the hegemonic position of Spain in these collaborations, and the neocolonial discourses embedded within those negotiations. Based on my fieldwork in Peru, this thesis centres predominantly on the Peruvian experience of co-production, examining parallels with similar practices of film production collaborations in other countries within the subcontinent. The thesis is accompanied by a practical component. The 46mns documentary Latin America in Co-production (dir. Libia Villazana UK/Peru, 2007) resulted from the fieldwork, and primarily organises, illustra...

106

Maize and Sociopolitical Complexity in the Ayacucho Valley Finucane, Brian 2007 Oxford University

Abstract: This study examines the ways in which maize agriculture influenced and/or catalyzed the development of sociopolitical complexity in the Ayacucho Valley of Peru. First, a revised chronology is devised for Ayacucho based on a new series of radiocarbon dates. This new timeline indicates that the hegemony of the Wari state in the Ayacucho Valley spanned the period from ca. AD700 to AD1050. Then using the record ofpaleodiet contained in the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in human and animal remains from 16 archaeological sites, it is shown that maize was the mainstay ofhuman subsistence from at least ca. 800BC until the time of the Spanish Conquest. Clear evidence is presented documenting the preeminent role of this cereal in the domestic economiesof early Formative societies and the la...

107 The Genetics of Susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii and Related Phenotypes Darlay, Rebecca 2007 The University of Leeds



Chapter 2 Conquest

“Although we still use the word “conquest” to refer to this period of initial engagement between Europeans and native Andeans, we now realise that the capture of Atahualpa was an initial salvo in a much longer war, and that the Incas may not even have guessed at Spanish intentions for some two years after the events at Cajamarca. Interestingly Titu Cusi does not use the term “conquest”. Instead he says that the Spanish “arrived” and that the events “happened” during the time his father “lived among them”. He portrays his father as naive and foolish, a man who ignored his closest advisors . . . and inadvertently allowed the Spanish to take the Inca Empire away from him. His story is another telling of the traditional story of the conquest, containing truths as well as new forms of bias.”

In the traditional version . . .

Source: page viii Introduction to “History of how the Spaniards arrived in Peru” by By Diego de Castro (Titu Cusi) Yupangui (1570), Catherine J. Julien

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