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K. Marinas' Cyclic Multiverse Hypothesis/Old Approach to Unit-Scaling

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The below is the old, and now defunct, scaling law for K. Marinas' Cyclic Multiverse Hypothesis. The new scaling law, found at K. Marinas' Cyclic Multiverse Hypothesis#A Fractal Universe and Physical_Units, allows for faster-than-light-motion embedded inside normally slower-than-light matter, which could explain the origin of the astronomical quantity of energy now understood in quantum physics as vacuum energy.

A Fractal Universe and Physical UnitsEdit

The Cyclic Multiverse is a self-similiar fractal which might have formed just like a snowflake would. Anything from the curvature of spacetime to the pattern of a snowflake can ultimately explained with units of measurement.

k is equal to the multiple between fractal levels.

The changes of primary physical properties for the lower fractal level are as follows²:

k^{1}
Properties which are greater at the lower fractal level:
frequency Hertz 1/s
k^{0}
Properties that are the same for corresponding of objects of each fractal level:
temperature Kelvin K
velocity Meters per second m/s
k^{-1}
Properties which are smaller at the lower fractal level:
wavelength (distance) Meters m
luminous intensity Candelas Cd
k^{-2}
Properties that are proportional to the amount of substance or mass at each fractal level:
charge Columbs C
mass Kilograms kg

From these assumptions, we can determine the changes that occur in other physical properties for every fractal level we go down.

The changes of physical properties for the lower fractal level are as follows:

Gravitational PhenomenaEdit

k^{1}
Properties which are greater at the lower fractal level:
angular velocity radians/s
density kg/m3
force/mass m/s2
G m3/(kg·s2)
pressure N/m2

Material PhenomenaEdit

k^{1}

Properties which are greater at the lower fractal level:
acoustic impedance (kg/s)/m2 proportional to the density and the phase velocity (speed of sound).
energy density J/m3 energy / volume
k^{0}
Property that remains the same for corresponding of objects of each fractal level:
dynamic viscosity (kg/s)/m the resistance of a fluid to deformation under shear stress
surface tension J/m2 the amount of tension that keeps a surface, especially of liquids together
k^{-1}
Properties which are smaller at the lower fractal level:
force N=J/m comes from a energetic kinetic potential produced by an impulse
power W=J/s rate of energy expenditure
mass flow rate kg/s the mass of fluid that flows past a given cross sectional area per second
kinematic viscosity m2/s ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density

Correlations with substanceEdit

k^{2}
Property that is inversely proportional to the amount of substance or mass at each fractal level:
angular acceleration radians/s2 rate of change of angular velocity
k^{-2}
Properties that are proportional to the amount of substance or mass at each fractal level:
area m2 such as the area of a crossection of a specified part of a vacuum which lets photons of the lower fractal level through. Photons/area is a constant for corresponding areas of different fractal levels
impulse and momentum N·s=kg·m/s force * time. mass * velocity.
energy J=kg·m2/s2 quantity of energy itself
mass kg equivalence of mass and energy. where there is point mass, within it are point charges.
volume flow rate m3/s the volume of fluid that flows past a given cross sectional area per second
torque kg·m2/s2 force applied to a member to produce rotational motion

Light PhenomenaEdit

k^{1}

Properties which are greater at the lower fractal level:
frequency 1/s influences the other electrical properties for this lower fractal level (Hz, cycles per second)
angular frequency radians/s frequency with which phase changes
spectroscopic wavenumber 1/m the inverse of wavelength
luminosity Cd/m2 light emission / area
light flux density lm/m2 light incident / area
k^{0}
Properties that are the same for corresponding of objects of each fractal level:
luminous efficacy lm/W power as it appears to an observer versus the actual power
k^{-1}
Properties which are smaller at the lower fractal level:
wavelength

distance

m influences the other electrical properties for this lower fractal level
luminous flux lm=Cd·sr Candelas times Steradians (lumens, lm)
luminous intensity Cd power emmited by a light source
k^{-2}
Properties that are proportional to the amount of substance or mass at each fractal level:
luminous energy lm·s quantity of light. living things on the lower fractal level see photons which have k^{-2} as much energy.

Electric PhenomenaEdit

k^{2}
Property that is inversely proportional to the amount of charge at each fractal level:
elastance 1/F=V/C=J/C2 potential difference for every coulomb (inverse farads)

k^{1}

Properties which are greater at the lower fractal level:
electric field strength N/C force / charge
current density A/m2 current / area
charge density C/m3 charge / volume
permeability N/A2 allows an electric field to pass through easily, lets charge through
resistance W/A2 higher electrical resistance at the lower fractal level (ohms Ω)
k^{0}
Properties that are the same for corresponding of objects of each fractal level:
applied tension J/m2=N/m work / area
conductivity 1/(Ω·m) property of matter which allows an electric field to get from A to B
resistivity Ω·m property of matter which resists an electric field from getting from A to B
potential difference W/A=J/C power per unit current. energy per unit charge. current times resistance. (volt)
electric flux density

polarization density

C/m2 a field which causes electric flux.

electric dipole moment per unit volume.

k^{-1}
Properties which are smaller at the lower fractal level:
current A flow rate of electricity which provides a force that causes magnetic flux
permittivity C/(V·m) resists the flow of an electric field, contains charge
conductance A/V current produced / (energy / charged particle)
k^{-2}
Properties that are proportional to the amount of substance or mass at each fractal level:
capacitance F=C/V=C2/J quantity of charge stored for every volt (farads)
coulombs

electric flux

C=A·s quantity of electric charge itself
k^{-3}
Properties that are very small at lower fractal levels.
electric dipole moment A·s·m a vector due to uneven distribution of unlike charges. proportional to charge and distance.
planck's constant J·s the discrete quantity of action (quantum unit of angular momentum)

Magnetic PhenomenaEdit

k^{1}

Properties which are greater at the lower fractal level:
magnetic flux density Wb/m2 magnetic flux / area
k^{0}
Properties that are the same for corresponding of objects of each fractal level:
inductance J/A2 accomodation of the production of magnetic flux per current
reluctance A2/J resistance of the production of magnetic flux per current
magnetic vector potential N/A=Wb/m force per amp. magnetic flux per meter.
magnetic field strength

magnetization

A/m an auxillary field which causes magnetic flux.

magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.

k^{-1}
Properties which are smaller at the lower fractal level:
magnetic flux Wb=J/A=V·s comes from an energetic magnetic field produced by a current (weber, Wb)
k^{-3}
Properties that are very small at lower fractal levels.
magnetic dipole moment A·m2 a vector whose direction is normal to a loop of current. proportional to current and area.

Temperature PhenomenaEdit

k^{1}
Properties which are greater at the lower fractal level:
thermal heat transfer coefficient (W/m2)/K coefficient, thermal conductance
thermal resistance K/W index of a material's resistance to heat flow

the reciprocal of conductance

k^{0}
Properties that are the same for corresponding of objects of each fractal level:
temperature K corresponding objects of the lower fractal are just as hot, or as cold, as they are in our fractal level
thermal conductivity (W/m)/K ability of a material to conduct heat.
thermal expansion coefficient and temperature of color 1/K the fractional change in length or volume per Kelvin at constant pressure
velocity change with temperature (m/s)/K velocity increases with temperature
thermal heat capacity J/kg the heat stored in a given mass
k^{-1}
Properties which are smaller at the lower fractal level:
thermal conductance W/K rate of heat flow
thermal resistance coefficient K/(W/m2) coefficient, thermal resistance
k^{-2}
Properties that are proportional to the amount of substance or mass at each fractal level:
heat capacity J/K proportion relating the amount of energy per temperature

"Political" PropertiesEdit

k^{1}

Properties which are greater at the lower fractal level:
"Political" Property Explanation Equal to Physical Analogue
resistance trouble encountered when going a distance or time difficulty/achievement ohms
k^{0}
Properties that are the same for corresponding of objects of each fractal level:
"Political" Property Explanation Equal to Physical Analogue
difficulty a measure of the problems encountered achievement·resistance volts
k^{-1}
Properties which are smaller at the lower fractal level:
"Political" Property Explanation Equal to Physical Analogue
power rate of exercising freedoms freedoms/time watts
achievement the action itself particles/time amps
k^{-2}
Properties that are proportional to the amount of substance or mass at each fractal level:
"Political" Property Explanation Equal to Physical Analogue
freedom potential to do liberties/time joules
charge how much has passed achievement·time coulombs
k^{-3}
Properties that are very small at lower fractal levels.
"Political" Property Explanation Equal to Physical Analogue
liberty activity freedom·time joule-seconds

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