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La Conquista

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The "Sucedió en el Perú // It happened in Peru" video is in five parts (click): Conquest 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
History: Sucedió en el Perú

Topic: The Conquest of the Inca Empire. The invasion and occupation of Tawantinsuyu.[1]
Period: (arbitrary 1526 to 1572) 1526/7 (Death of Huayna Capac), 1526 (10 March Contract Almagro, Luque, Pizarro), 1532 (16 May Pizarro in Tumbes. 16 November Cajamarca), 1533 (26 July The taking of Atahualpa's life.) . . . 1572 (24 September Cuzco Execution of Tupac Amaru).

These pages need editing. Translations need improving. Every comma helps. Try it. See Annexe:How to edit (Click on Contents section).
Apologies in advance about adverts on these pages. For now these pages are supported by advertisements which are, for many reader-viewers, distracting and at times offensive. As you may know the adverts are outside the control of the Opentext Journal of Peruvian Studies. They are apparently chosen by some formula as being "appropriate to the page". Clearly the formula does not always work. Side menu column. At this stage the menu column is not particularly useful as it serves all the journal titles in the academia.wikia domain. Note also experimental use of the peruearthquake.wikia domain and others (see text in article on Paracas). Template. This is a template which may be used in any article and is in the category History of Peru.

Who are these pages written for // para quien son estas páginas?
For all. The part of the page dealing with resources, library collections, etc is not tailored to - or directed to - any particular "profile" of reader / viewer / student / researcher . . . It is intended as a database and list of sources for those researchers and students interested in this period. The second part of these pages are more specific and just for small groups or one-to-one. Browse down the page to the sections of research groups and tutorials to find material focusing on the study needs of particular groups. Tutorial 1 is directed to Peruvians in Europe.
You can edit existing pages or add text, images, videos etc. This is known as OCE - Open Collaborative Editing. This is Template:ForWhom

Video La Conquista del Tawantinsuyu with transcription and translationEdit

La Conquista del Tawantinsuyu is a TVPeru documentary in the Sucedió en el Perú series written and produced by Antonio Zapata, other members of the team are listed in the film credits and the participant historians are identified in the text.

Note re translation of Tawantinsuyu[1]: click on the footnote number (the superscript) to go to the text of the reference, citation or explanation, or scroll to the foot of this page. Editing footnotes. You can edit these footnotes - as well as the main text - and insert new ones by including the text of the footnote as follows:[2]. Click on "Edit" or "Edit this page" at the top of the document to get into the edit mode.

Just 170 Spaniards in Cajamarca defeated an empire of 12 million people. Eso es imposible, ProfesorEdit

00.28 Zapata: Oye, Benito. Hoy día vamos a presentar el programa sobre la conquista de los Incas. // Hey, Benito. Today we are going to present a (the) programme about the conquest[3] of the Incas. Benito: El Tawantinsuyu. // The Tawantinsuyu (Inca Empire lit. tawa/four suyu/region.) Zapata: Un clásico de la historia peruana, Benito, que lamentablemente se cuenta algunas veces muy mal. // A classic story of Peruvian history, Benito which unfortunately they sometimes tell really badly. :: Y? / And?  : Porque se dice que un grupo de 170 españoles derribó un imperio de 12 millones de personas allí en Cajamarca. // Because they say that a group of just 170 Spaniards in Cajamarca defeated an empire of 12 million people. Eso es imposible, Profesor. // That’s impossible, Professor.

00.50 Zapata: Y lesiona la autoestima de los peruanos, y encima tu sabes que no es cierto porque en realidad este grupo de españoles - hablando de ellos primero - eran la avanzada de la civilización occidental y tenían cuarenta años de experiencia porque Colon había ya llegado al Nuevo mundo 40 años antes que Pizarro al Perú.
La conquista del Perú - Bloque 106:02

La conquista del Perú - Bloque 1

Click arrow to play. Press spacebar to pause.

// And it wounds the self-esteem of the Peruvians. And above all you know that it is not true because actually this group of Spaniards – speaking about them first – were the advance guard of Westerners / Europeans (civilisation / had the trappings of Western technology) and had forty years of (campaign) experience because Columbus had arrived in the New World (1492) forty years before Pizarro got to Peru (in 1532). Benito: Ya. // OK. Zapata: De todas maneras tenían un plan. // In any case they had a plan. Benito: Cual era, Profesor? // What was it, Professor? Zapata: Capturar el rey. // Capture the Inca. Benito: Ya. Zapata: En un emboscado capturar el soberano, y a partir de allí desmembrar la entidad política de los indígenas. // In an ambush, capture the sovereign and from there dismember/ destroy the political entity/ infrastructure of the indigenous people. Benito: La estrategia de la ajedrez. // The strategy of chess. Zapata: Exacto capturar el rey y sacar el juego. // Exactly, capture the Inca king and win the game. Benito: Saca mate // Check mate.

The conquest was an economic enterprise not an Iberian one. Edit

1.37 Efraín Trelles La conquista es una empresa económica y no es una empresa ibérica. Segundo es una empresa privada. No es el estado español que lo hace la conquista. Los conquistadores ha (auto) financiado. Y a cambio de este riesgo reciben el exceso? fuerzo del trabajo de los/las indígenas. // The conquest was an economic enterprise not an Iberian one. Secondly it was undertaken privately. It wasn’t the Spanish state which was the conqueror. The conquistadors financed it themselves and for the risks they took on they received the surplus labour of the native American.

Two distinct systems of logic, two modes of thought, and two cultures collideEdit

2.01 José Antonio del Busto[4] Con la conquista uno no puede lamentarse ni felicitarse, simplemente eso pasó ni aplaudir sucedió. En el imperio de los Incas no era perfecto. El imperio de los Incas lo conozco yo – no era perfecto como el imperio español tampoco no eran. Eran dos realidades humanas, dos lógicos distintos, dos modos de pensar, dos culturas que se encontraron . . . // The conquest was neither to be grieved over nor to be applauded. It happened. The Inca empire was not perfect. Neither was the Spanish. They were two human realities, two distinct systems of logic, two modes of thought, and two cultures which collided[5] with each other and . . .

Pizarro had landed in Tumbes, continues to Chan Chan. Returns to Spain. The death of Huayna CapacEdit

2.33 Narrativo / voiceover El final del Tawantinsuyu se anunció cuando Huayna Capac era el soberano y gobernaba desde Quito. En ese momento, el inca recibió noticias del segundo viaje de los españoles. 2.54 Pizarro había desembarcado en Tumbes, luego había vuelto a su carabela bajando por la costa hasta avizorar Chan Chan. Ahí tomó la decisión de retornar a España para armar una expedición en regla; el incario era demasiado imponente para las fuerzas que disponía entonces. Luego, se enfermó el inca viejo y su sucesor ya designado. Llegaban las epidemias. En esta ocasión, se trataba de la viruela, una enfermedad del Viejo Mundo cuyos gérmenes viajaban más rápido que los conquistadores y atacaban con feroz mortalidad a poblaciones que carecían de defensas adecuadas. Ambos fallecieron y se creó un peligroso vacío de poder en el incario. // Pizarro had landed in Tumbes, then he had returned to his caravel and continued down the coast until Chan Chan (the old Chimu city) was sighted / had come into view. There he decided to return to Spain to fit out a more adequate expedition as the incario was more than a match for his limited forces. Then the old Inca became ill and his successor had already been designated. Epidemics struck. This time it was smallpox, a disease from the Old World which (whose germs / bacteria?) travelled (traveled US) faster than the conquistadors and attacked - with extremely high death rates - populations which were lacking adequate defences. Both . . . . died and created a dangerous power vacuum in the Inca Empire.

La conquista del Perú - Bloque 106:02

La conquista del Perú - Bloque 1

Click arrow to play. Press spacebar to pause.

Epidemics - a type of special helpEdit

3.40 Gabriela Ramos El poder de los epidémias – contra eso, quien pudo hacer algo u nadie lo entendía en esa época. Los españoles entendieron eso era una especie de ayuda especial, que recibieron por el hecho de ser cristianos. // Nobody could do anything in the face of these epidemics nor did they understand anything about them at that time. The Spaniards thought of them as a type of special help which they received by virtue of their being Christian.

4.00 Voiceover La madre de Huascar era la Coya y al producirse la muerte de Huayna Capac, salió de Quito corriendo al Cuzco, donde hizo proclamar a su hijo como nuevo Inca. // The mother of Huascar was the Coya and on the death of Huayna Capac, she quickly left Quito for Cuzco, where she proclaimed her son the new Inca.

Huascar as playboy, the undignified successor to Huayna CapacEdit

4.11 José Antonio del Busto Huascar no fue muy acertado yo . . esa ocasión alguna risa cuando digo que la vida de Huascar era muy similar a un playboy y fue hace un individuo carecia / padecía disciplino objetivo vivía solamente para divertirse no era por dicirlo el digno sucesor de Huayna Capac, ni nieto de Tupak Yupanki ni nieto de Pachacutec. // Huascar was not quite right for the job. I smile when I say that Huascar’s life was similar to that of a playboy. He was a person who lacked discipline and objectivity (focus) and lived only to enjoy himself. He wasn’t the dignified successor to Huayna Capac, nor Tupac Yupanki or Pachacutec.

Limiting the power of the imperial Inca nobility in CuzcoEdit

4.36 Narative Voiceover Pero, Huascar inició su gobierno con medidas radicales. El nuevo monarca intentó cortar el poder de las familias de la nobleza imperial, denominadas “panacas”, porque habían extendido su poder en exceso y una enorme extensión de territorio estaba siendo privatizado por la aristocracia cuzqueña. // But Huascar began his government with radical measures. The new monarch sought to limit the power of the families of the imperial nobility (called panacas) because they had extended their power excessively and a huge expanse of territory was being privatised by the aristocracy of Cuzco.

4.51 Guillermo Cock Cada panaca, cada inca y sus descendientes se apropiaban de valles completos y convertían a la población en yanaconas y dependían directamente de ellos lo cual le complicaba al estado el manejo porque sacaba por un lado de este . . . esta gente de su control directo y añadir además un elemento adicional de intermediación. Si ellos necesitaban algo de esta zona si necesitaban gente de esta zona tiene que ir al jefe de los clanes de Cuzco. // Every panaca, every inca and his descendents were taking over complete valleys and converting their populations into yanaconas and these were depending directly on them. This made the management of the state more complex because on the one hand it took these people out of the direct control of the Inca and added also other intermediaries. If the state needed something from this zone, if they needed people / labour from this area it had to go to the chief(tain) of the Cuzco clans.

5.31 Narative Voiceover Las decisiones de Huascar fueron resistidas por las grandes familias aristocráticas y algunas se rebelaron llamando a Atahualpa para que encabece un levantamiento contra el Inca recién proclamado. Por su parte, Atahualpa era otro hijo de Huayna Capac que, junto con parte de la corte, había acompañado a su padre a Quito. // The decisions of Huascar were resisted by the great aristocratic families and some rebelled, calling on Atahualpa to lead an uprising against the newly proclaimed Inca. For his part, Atahualpa was also a son of Huayna Capac and he, along with part of the court, had accompanied his father to Quito.

End of clip 1.

La Conquista: ResourcesEdit

Resources, courses and horses: enter here any documents not listedEdit

The long term objective in this part is to support the efforts by the BN of Peru to assemble a complete set of resources on the history of Peru (and for this section on the Conquest period). This is essentially a moving target as new archaeological sites are being unearthed, old documents are rediscovered and transcribed and accessibility to existing collections improved. See Research Resources below. There are of course many ways of interpreting and focusing on these resources, many ways of delivering courses from the same set of documents and each reader, viewer, student, tutor or user will have a particular set of requirements. So there could be a variety of tutorials for this topic. Each topic or article therefore has a section on "Resources", a section on "Research activity" and one for "Tutorials".

Research and tutorial groups This collaborative history depends on each student or group of students (tutorial group) adding their own "model" of a tutorial so that others do not have to reinvent the wheel.

Accessibility of documents: the Biblioteca Nacional del Perú, BNP, National Library of Peru's collectionEdit

We hope that - eventually - (A) Resources will contain, in addition to the videos, a complete list of accessible (online or widely available) documents relating to the topic or period (or links to websites where the documents' contents may be viewed). Publishers (private or corporate) of documents containing data obtained in Peru have a legal obligation to deposit copies of the work with the Peruvian National Library, if the intention is to publish in Peru. Donation certificates will be given for other publications given to the Library. It is hoped that all (A) Resources [6] will be archived at the National Library of Peru (BNP) and viewable from secure backup and mirror websites. (However) the most comprehensive index to resources is currently the LANIC University of Texas and the most comprehensive collection that of the joint libraries of the University of California. In Europe Berlin probably* has the greatest overall collection. (The Ibero-American Institute at the Potsdamer Platz in the heart of Berlin.) We hope that where it comes to Peruvian materials that the BNP will be able to house comparable collections and that this 'History of Peru' project will be able to aid that aim (Have you written or produced media on Peru? Is there a copy of your book, article, film or other media in the online catalogue of the Peruvian National Library. Get your publishers to check. If not get them to deposit or donate a copy.)

Problems in historiography Edit

There has been, over the last few decades, a opening-up of the ways of doing history, of writing about the past. This tendency has provided greater space for other voices to be heard. For a discussion of recent trends in ways of writing histories see López, Sinesio La reinvención de la historia de abajo; Drinot, Paulo After the Nueva Historia: Recent Trends in Peruvian Historiography which provides a good overview of trends in Peruvian historiography during the last few decades; or Drinot, Paulo (University of Oxford) Historiography, Historiographic Identity and Historical Consciousness in Peru click here. A series of articles in blog form provide alternative perspectives: Brown, Haines. Foundationalism, topology and historical evidence.

Historiography, the early chroniclers and empire-building

Cristian A. Roa-de-la-Carrera. Histories of Infamy: Francisco Lopez de Gomara and the Ethics of Spanish Imperialism. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2005. xvii + 264 pp. $40.00 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-87081-813-4. Roa-de-la-Carrera's book has been reviewed by Paul Lokken (Department of History and Social Sciences, Bryant University) under the title "Historiography and Empire-Building" Published on H-Atlantic (July, 2007). Gomara was the Secretary to Hernan Cortes in Italy and Algeria.[citation needed] (Note to be verified)

Wider fields: when non-historians lend their skills to interpret historyEdit

There has been a tendency not only to find space for more voices but also to widen the approach or methodologies involved. For example in applying multidisciplinary approaches - social science with history, statistical methods with history, economics and history and development studies and history (see tutorials below). See also Dávalos y Lissón, Pedro, (1863-1942) "La primera centuria: causas geográficas, políticas y económicas que han detenido el progreso moral y material del Perú en el primer siglo de su vida independiente." published in 1919.


In the U.S. The U.S. Congress first exercised its power to enact copyright legislation with the Copyright Act of 1790. The Act secured an author the exclusive right to publish and vend "maps, charts and books" for a term of 14 years, with the right of renewal for one additional 14 year term if the author was still alive. The act did not regulate other kinds of writings, such as musical compositions or newspapers and specifically noted that it did not prohibit copying the works of foreign authors. Read more.

Online library collectionsEdit

ADD OTHER VIRTUAL LIBRARIES KNOWN TO YOU BELOW. A short description as well as the internet link would be useful.

  • Virtual library of the the Biblioteca Nacional del Perú The virtual library of the Biblioteca Nacional del Perú is rapidly expanding. Its prime purpose is to make its resources available throughout Peru, thus tackling the great disadvantage that the regions are under when it comes to learning and research - at the same time benefitting those outside the country. National Library of Peru (BNdeP) online collection.
  • ERIC provides unlimited access to more than 1.3 million bibliographic records of journal articles and other education-related materials, with hundreds of new records added twice weekly. If available, links to full text are included. ERIC users include education researchers, teachers, librarians, administrators, education policymakers, instructors and students in teacher-preparation programs, parents, the media and business communities, and the general public. The user community conducts more than eight million searches each month through the ERIC Web site and commercial and non-commercial sites. To find out more go to
  • El Archivo General de Indias fundamentalmente custodia los fondos producidos por las instituciones creadas por la Administración española para el gobierno y administración de los territorios ultramarinos españoles. Estas instituciones son: Consejo de Indias y Secretarías de Despacho, Casa de la Contratación y Consulados de Sevilla y Cádiz. Asimismo, se conservan otros fondos de instituciones de menor entidad e incluso de particulares relacionados con las colonias españolas en América y Asia. La finalidad de este Archivo es la conservación de estos fondos y, mediante su organización y descripción, favorecer su difusión para todos los ciudadanos. El Archivo General de Indias website.Descriptive instruments
  • Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes Con la creación de su Biblioteca Americana, la Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes pretende contribuir al conocimiento de la compleja realidad cultural, política, social, literaria de un continente fascinante. (Description from website). / El usuario de esta Biblioteca Americana encontrará en ella una gran cantidad de documentos textuales y audiovisuales que le permitirán acercarse, entre otros, a espacios tan diversos como la literatura gauchesca, la cultura hispana en Estados Unidos o la creación brasileña; al mundo barroco de sor Juana Inés de la Cruz o a la realidad más contemporánea en la poesía de Mario Benedetti; a destacados acervos como la Biblioteca José Toribio Medina de Chile, los Fondos reservados de la Biblioteca Nacional de México o los Manuscritos de América en las Colecciones Reales; al pensamiento del libertador Bolívar o al de los grandes nombres del exilio español en América. (Description from website). Read more or search
  • UNMSM SISBIB The invaluable online library of San Marcos. Examples. La primera historiadora profesional en la Academia Nacional de Historia; José de la Riva-Agüero: Centenario de una tesis memorable.
  • La Biblioteca Digital Andina La Biblioteca Digital Andina es un espacio que reúne obras representativas del acervo cultural de los países andinos y constituye, a la vez, un entorno de información, conocimiento y servicios en las distintas áreas de la integración. Este Proyecto, originalmente impulsado por la Secretaría General de la Comunidad Andina, se ha desarrollado con la participación de catorce instituciones de la subregión andina - bibliotecas nacionales y de las universidades estatales y privadas- y el apoyo del Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos (IFEA). La BDA cuenta con el apoyo de la Cooperación Francesa, en el marco del convenio de cooperación suscrito entre la Secretaría General de la Comunidad Andina y la Delegación Regional Francesa de Cooperación para los Países Andinos. [1]
  • Gutenberg Project Example: Translation of Pedro Sancho, secretary to Pizarro. [2]
  • El Dorado Las actividades de la Biblioteca Digital Iberoamericana y Caribeña iniciaron en 1999 cuando se definió el proyecto, para ello la UNESCO convocó a un grupo multidisciplinario de expertos (diseñadores, bibliotecarios, programadores y expertos en telecomunicaciones) de Infomed (Cuba), IBICT y BIREME OPS (Brasil) y Universidad de Colima (México) a 4 reuniones de trabajo para afinar las directrices, aspectos técnicos del proyecto, estructura de los datos, el sitio, y metodología para la catalogación, digitalización y comunicación entre servidores. Como resultado de estas sesiones se diseñó un programa piloto generador de bibliotecas digitales en el que se explica cómo trasladar los documentos a material electrónico, cómo catalogar esa información y ponerla a disposición del público a través de la red mediante protocolos estandarizados. (From website). Search.

Online Indexes to academic contentEdit

BASE [3] (free index to academic content, mainly free)



  • José de Acosta
  • Juan de Betanzos
  • Miguel Cabello Valboa
  • Antonio de la Calancha
  • Juan Calvete de Estrella
  • Gaspar de Carvajal
  • Pedro Cieza de León
  • Diego Fernández de Palencia
  • Felipe Guamán Poma de Ayala
  • Francisco de Jerez
  • Cristóbal de Molina
  • Martín de Murua
  • Juan Polo de Ondegardo
  • Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz
  • Titu Cusi Yupanqui
  • Blas Valera
  • Agustín de Zárate

Embedding History of Peru in your websiteEdit

You can create a frame or window on your website which will look directly into the History of Peru page. This is the code.

<html> <head> <title>Untitled</title> </head> <body> <font face="arial, verdana" size="3"><table cellpadding="5" width="800"> <tr> <td><iframe src ="" width="640" height="800"> </iframe></td> <td><b>History of Peru</b><br> Please enter text, graphics or video in "edit mode". <br> <a href="">Go to overall index. Enlace al indice general.</a> <br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br><br> <br><br><br><br><br><br><br> </td> </tr> </table> </font>

Research lists: who's who in research in this field. Setting up new research partnerships.Edit

Research projects including book projectsEdit

See section on tutorials for recommended texts (if any - references should be on line or 'cheap').

(1) This is space to list research relevant to the theme of these pages, worldwide, which has resulted in a book, a published research paper, employs at least one research assisitant, produced a conference paper, a peer group working paper, doctoral research . . . . other media film etc. (Student output also valued - see Student Research Exchange).

  • Sancho Pedro. An account of the conquest of Peru written by Pedro Sancho[7], Secretary to Pizarro and scrivener to his army. In Documents and Narratives concerning the Discovery and Conquest of Latin America. Published by the Cortes Society, New York. 1917.
  • Cieza de Léon, Pedro. The Second Part of the Chronicle of Peru Clements R. Markham, trans. & ed. (London: Hakluyt Society, 1883), pp. 36-50.
  • Balfour, Sebastian. The End of the Spanish Empire, 1898-1923. Oxford University Press, 1997. A study of Spain's war with the United States in 1898 and the repercussions for the empire.
  • Elliott, J. H. Imperial Spain 1469-1716. 2nd ed. Penguin, 2002. A distinguished historian relates the story of Spain's emergence as an imperial power.
  • Kagan, Richard L., and Geoffrey Parker, eds. Spain, Europe and the Atlantic World: Essays in Honour of John H. Elliott. Cambridge University Press, 1995. Essays on the Spanish Empire written in honor of a noted imperial historian.
  • Kamen, Henry. Empire: How Spain Became a World Power, 1492-1763. HarperCollins, 2003. Survey of the empire Spain built in Europe, the Americas, and Asia.
  • Lynch, John. The Hispanic World in Crisis and Change, 1598-1700. Blackwell, 1992. A solid one-volume history from a respected imperial historian.
  • McCaa Robert, Aleta Nimlos and Teodoro Hampe-Martínez. Why Blame Smallpox? The Death of the Inca Huayna Capac and the Demographic Destruction of Tawantinsuyu (Ancient Peru) Online and powerpoint
  • Olson, James S., ed. Historical Dictionary of the Spanish Empire, 1402-1975. Greenwood, 1992. More than 1,300 entries make up this informative reference work on all aspects of Spain's vast empire.
  • Prescott, William, (Book review contemporary);cc=nora;rgn=full%20text;idno=nora0065-2;didno=nora0065-2;view=image;seq=00374;node=nora0065-2%3A1
  • Stradling, R. A. The Armada of Flanders: Spanish Maritime Policy and European War, 1568-1668. Cambridge University Press, 1992. Argues that Spanish naval power persevered beyond the destructive battle of 1588.
  • Thomas, Hugh. Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire, from Columbus to Magellan. Random House, 2004. Focuses on the first 30 years of Spanish conquests.

(2) Student Research Exchange List undergraduate and masters research project(s). Indicate if you would like to work together in an international exchange / collaboration on the theme of your research. If possible enter descriptive passages in Spanish and English. Add your geographical location.

Departments teaching Peruvian historyEdit

Where can I do Peruvian History?
Almost no university, college or school in the United Kingdom teaches pure specialist History of Peru. The exceptions being University of Liverpool, Cambridge, . . (Click on Category:History of Peru to go to the Index page. Then select the template - "Template:Tutorials_classes". On the template click Edit this page to update, add, delete these entries). And that is exactly the point of this online collaborative history of Peru: to have as near a complete collection of study and research resources on specialised topics and a space for academic collaboration within the theme of the History of Peru, such that non-specialised profs from a variety of disciplines may work with you on a tailored (customised) learning scheme, project, dissertation etc. Please add your details (here - can this be made a field??) if you would like to join the Peruvian History Initiative. Example - a Latin American studies lecturer, a secondary school history teacher - a student whose parents came from Peru, students who visited Peru in their gap year. Template. This is a template which may be used in (pasted into) any article and is in the category History of Peru.

Links to relevant websitesEdit

Royal Hunt of the SunEdit

An actor's interpretation of Atahualpa. [10] The following is the comment on the YouTube site by "Paulette aka dglekjofg": "The enchanting Christopher Plummer as (perhaps) you have never seen him before. One of the many astonishing virtuoso performances of Christopher Plummer's art, in a film which is a real gem and a definitely must see for every admirer of this unique artist. The film is "The Royal Hunt of the Sun", a 1969 British production based on a play by Peter Shaffer and directed by Irving Lerner. Christopher Plummer plays Atahualpa, the divine king (son of the Sun) of the Inca Empire, and Robert Shaw plays Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro. Everything in this film is worth seeing: the screenplay and dialogues, the music, the performances of all the actors. Christopher Plummer gives an absolutely astonishing artistic performance. Moreover... in this film he is so outrageously handsome that every minute you will ask yourselves: but am I seeing Christopher Plummer playing, or rather Beauty itself personified into a human semblance? In this clip Atahualpa and Pizarro are carring on a private conversation, and learning to know and respect each other."

There is an interview on [11].

Open access journalsEdit

The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) lists open access journals, that is, scientific and scholarly journals that meet high quality standards by exercising peer review or editorial quality control and are free to all from the time of publication [8]. Open source journals in Peru:

Polemical contributionsEdit

La Conquista: Interest and study group listsEdit

(Currently under revision)

There is space for telling as many as possible of the stories in Peruvian history! Include a record of your recent tutorial under a relevant topic heading. History of Peru (in English) is designed to be sufficiently flexible to be of use to all English-speakers interested in the theme. It does this by accessing the new and rapidly expanding digital resources - see (A) Resources - and by forming as many specialised tutorial groups as necessary - see (B) Tutorials (sometimes called classes, learning groups, study groups, project groups, research groups . . . ) below.

Specialised tutorials / research groups (new materials are / should be sent by email to group members - usually 1-9 in number). Current themes / mailings include: Peruvian women in history, Afroperuvian history, Diplomatic history, History of Peruvian diaspora, History of Peruvian cultural studies (literature, anthropology, . . .), British Peruvian history, Franco-Peruvian history, History of Peruvian music and dance, History of Peruvian art, Peruvian social history, Peruvian economic history, Ideas and philosophy in Peruvian history, History of Peruvian banking and finance, Family histories . .

"General Peruvian History" and "Writing projects, dissertations and presentations on Peru" are not mailed but included on the History pages. Materials developed in tutorials are shared internationally via the "Tutorials" space for each topic. Summaries should be provided in Spanish.

The following books have sold on a popular scale:on general Peruvian history: the Peru Reader. On the process of the conquest: John Hemming. On a comparison with the North American experience: John Elliott. All have paperback editions.

Teachers of history and associated subjects - where they have one or more student(s) with Peruvian heritage - are encouraged to set up a self-administered "tutorial" or "research" group.

Tutorial 1 A Peruvian view from London: the Burgess Park tutorial groupEdit

Tutor: Rotated. In Spanish, English and Kechua. The content emphasises contributions from sources Quechua and other Peruvian languages

Tutorial 2 General - History of PeruEdit

Academics call this a "straight down the wicket" approach.

Discussion of topic: La Conquista Edit

Focuses on points made in the first clip of The Conquest of Tawantinsuyu. Questions with some answers on line. Click Discussion Tab or write below.

Tutorial 3Edit

Introduction. British-Peruvian history and Peruvian-British historyEdit

This is written for the future, for

  • A girl of 2 years whose Peruvian grandfather knew more of Peru than most, her mother a Limen%a and her maternal grandparents from France. Born in Wimbledon and now growing up to be a "Londoner".
  • A boy of 9 months whose maternal grandparents are Korean, whose paternal grandparents are Peruvian and (with a twist of the family tree) British but is growing up to be a "Londoner".
  • A girl of 2½ whose father is Peruvian born and (mainly)British bred and whose mother is British.

This is also written for the present, for the thousands on children, grandchildren and "learners of any age" who share an vital interest in the history of Peru and also the country which they are growing up in (where that is different from Peru and which in the case of this tutorial is Britain). It is said that you have a "multiple heritage". About your British heritage you will learn much from your friends, from school, from TV and other entertainment media and from your parents. From them you will learn something also of your Peruvian heritage. If you are lucky you will be taken to Peru to experience things for yourself. You may have learnt at school and from TV about British history, but little if anything will have been said about the history of Peru or the way in which the history of that country has touched that of Britain. (The links between the two countries were especially strong in the nineteenth century. These tutorials hope to be able to fill the gap in this knowledge.) You will have learnt about Stonehenge and the early Britons. But what is "Peru's Stonehenge" and how do the two cultures compare? Or with cultures of the same antiquity in Korea and France, thinking of our future readers / viewers outlined above. How can we construct such complex "multiple heritage" histories?

By developing multiple series of tutorials, where each series is dedicated to a particular combination (of root cultures). This series deals with British Peruvian culture and Peruvian British culture. Three stories in one. Why three? The next tutorial goes on to explain. How do we include links to other root cultures you might wish to study? In the examples above these were France and Korea but in practice they could be one or more of 6,000 cultures (linguistic diasporas) worldwide.

Tutorial continued - La Conquista and Britain.Edit

You are told about "1066 and all that" (the Norman invasion of Anglo-Saxon England) but can that in any possible way relate to 1532 (the Spanish invasion of Inca Peru)? Surely Britain had nothing to do with "La Conquista del Perú" which was an entirely Spanish-Inca epic? Not so. On the Peruvian side there were other non-Inca groups who played important roles: the Huancas, Chachapoyas, Cañaris and so on. And what was England doing in the 1530's? Upwards of 3,000 religious houses (mainly monasteries and convents) were destroyed following the rejection of the Pope's authority (the Act of Supremacy 1535, passed by the notorious Seven Year's Parliament of 1529 to 1536). So at almost exacly the time that Spain (or at least Spaniards) were invading and occupying Peruvian space, England and Wales (for Scotland was still apart) was laying one plank . . which was to characterise its future empire to the north of New Spain (and which still differentiates the US from Peru) - the rejection of the Roman Pope and effectively of a monolithic state religion.

In the passage of time anglophone writers additionally came to influence our understanding of the period and process of the conquest. Prescott, Markham and more recently Hemming have become classic texts. "What really happened" we shall never exactly know. But writers in English have essentially laid down at least some of the benchmarks by which the conquest is interpreted. The myth and mists of history are perhaps here more significant.

Topics which are open for collaborative editing Edit

Caral, La Conquista, La Conquista 2, La Conquista 3, La Conquista 4, La Conquista 5.

Topics which are waiting page creationEdit

Caral (See Above); Chavín: El Formativo; Moche Nazca, Intermedio temprano; El Tahuantinsuyu; La Conquista (See above); Virreynato; Economía y Sociedad ; Las Reformas Borbónicas; Túpac Amaru, el gran rebelde; El Perú Independiente; Confederación Perú – Boliviana; Women in Peruvian history; El Guano, las economías de exportación; La guerra del Pacífico; El Perú en la Segunda Guerra Mundial; Perú, Economía y Tributación.

Slumdog millionaire quizEdit

This software (underlying script) can be used to carry out "ask the audience" or "popular voting" type polls. It is restricted currently to a question followed by three options. Other interactive software, for example of the "cgi" variety is not yet available. Click "Edit this page" to see script.

Which of the following writers were used as sources by Inca Garcilaso de la Vega when writing his Comentarios Reales?

The poll was created at 22:39 on July 9, 2009, and so far 3 people voted.


Read about the following by clicking on the link / word: Opentext Journal of Peruvian Studies, Correspoding discussion page for Journal, Minkapedia collaborative education, Journal of Latin American Studies. The pages so far have been developed on the platform. The same software could be installed on our (the network or community of scholars and specialists) own site and used without advertising and with greater protection from 'vandals'. Alternatively other collaboratively edited sites could be trialled, for example <> or the new google site <> Index of articles in the category - History of Peru Index of articles in the Opentext Journal of Peruvian Studies


  1. 1.0 1.1 Both "conquest" and "tawantinsuyu" (Cuzco-Quechua) present problems in translation. Many Peruvian schools teach something about Tawantinsuyu (lit. tawa/four, suyu/region) - that it was the name in Cuzco-Quechua (the lingua franca, see below) for the Inca Empire. To an extent the word is known in Peru (70 percent spoke Quechua 100 years ago) but not in Europe. Benito, Antonio Zapata's puppet helps us without offending us. . . . (the lingua franca or lengua general was the Cuzco variant of or within the family of languages called Quechua - other orthographies or spelling systems: Keshwa, Kechua, Quichua . . . or Runasimi: language of the people. The Quechua variants are as distinct linguistically as, for example but roughly, Portuguese and Spanish or Algerian popular Arabic and popular Arabic of the southern Gulf. Classical written Arabic is common to all. These variants of Quechua or "separate languages" total over 25, perhaps 30, in number depending on whether you are a "splitter" or "lumper" See Itier (2002).
  2. Text of footnote
  3. There is a debate regarding which words to use to describe the invasion by/ arrival of/ occupation by the Spaniards: encounter, collision, “the traumatic events of 1532”, John Elliott] uses "intrusion" and "occupation" for much of the process and leapfrogs some of the semantic difficulties. See also click - publishers card and a short biography.
  4. One of the most prolific of Peruvian historians.
  5. There is a variety of words which have been used to describe the invasion by the Spaniards: conquest, encounter, invasion, collision, “the traumatic events of 1532”, genocide, arrival
  6. Almost all documents of more than 70 years can now be placed legally on Internet without infringing copyright law and there is now an expanding collection accessible by anyone with internet (i.e. not everyone). The virtual library of the Biblioteca Nacional del Perú will be able to provide increasing access to collections.
  7. TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE - The work of Pedro Sancho is one of the most valuable accounts of the Spanish conquest of Peru that we possess. Nor is its value purely historical. The "Relación" of Sancho gives much interesting ethnological information relative to the Inca dominion at the time of its demolition. Errors Pedro Sancho has in plenty; but the editor has striven to counteract them by footnotes. / In every instance the translator has preserved Pedro Sancho's spelling of proper names, calling attention to the modern equivalent on the first occurrence of each name. In a few instances, where the text was unusually obscure, close translation has not been adhered to. / The virtues, as well as the shortcomings of this account, are so obvious that an extended reference to them here is superfluous.[6] It must always be borne in mind that this document partook of the nature of an "apologia pro vita sua" and that it was directly inspired by Pizarro himself with the purpose of restoring himself to the Emperor's favor. Its main purpose was to nullify whatever charges Pizarro's enemies may have been making to the sovereign. Consequently there are numerous violations of the truth, all of which are, for us, easy to recognize. / A word as to the previous editions of Pedro Sancho may not be out of place here. The original manuscript is lost. An Italian translation of it appears in the "Viaggi" of Giovanni Battista or Giambattista Ramusio, published in Venice about 1550. The numerous editions of Ramusio's great work do not need to be listed here. Occasionally the translator has referred to that of 1563, a copy of which is in his possession. The edition which has served as a text for the present translation is that issued and edited by Don Joaquin García Icazbalceta, Mexico, 1849. This edition, like all of Icazbalceta's[7] work, is painstaking. Professor Marshall Saville has been good enough to lend me his copy of this edition, which is very rare, in order that I might have it to work with. Finally, a small portion of Pedro Sancho's narrative was issued by the Hakluyt Society of London. The editor, Sir Clements Markham, included it in the same volume with the reports of Xeres, Miguel de Estete, Hernando Pizarro. The volume, entitled "Reports on the Discovery of Peru," was issued by the Hakluyt Society in 1872. (Signed) PHILIP AINSWORTH MEANS Boston, Massachusetts October 9, 1916
  8. based on the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) definition of open access.Because open access is a worldwide phenomenon, DOAJ includes publications from around the world in many languages. It is possible to browse through the journals, or search for articles within many of the journals through a web interface. In May 2009, the database contained 4177 journals, of which 1531 were searchable at article level. The aim of DOAJ is to "increase the visibility and ease of use of open access scientific and scholarly journals thereby promoting their increased usage and impact." DOAJ is managed and partly funded by Lund University Libraries. DOAJ has received or is receiving funding from the Open Society Institute, the National Library of Sweden, SPARC, SPARC Europe and Axiell. In addition there is a membership program for individuals and institutions to support the continuing operation and development of the project.

Annexe: how to editEdit

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How to edit: Needs editing!Edit

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Red sticker - needs developmentEdit

The red square is a "Warning Light". The text or translation needs attention . Refer to []. Help improve the transcription and translation. Use the "warning light" to flag up errors when "citation needed" (see below) is not appropriate . Alternatively insert a footnote if the error is debatable . . or write a short note on the discussion page. Or go ahead and correct if you are sure. The transcription should be faithful to the sound-track. Do not try to improve the grammar! The translation can be cultural rather than literal. Aim also for colour and interest as the translation could serve for sub-titles or a voiceover in a future foreign-language version.

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Extremely hlpeful article, please write more. Extremely hlpeful article, please write more.

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