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The "Sucedió en el Perú // It happened in Peru" video is in five parts (click): Conquest 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

History: Sucedió en el Perú


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Tasks to do!Edit

Complete the transcription / writing down of the interviews. Complete the translations into English. Open new pages for translations into other languages. If additional explanation needed use footnotes to annotate the text. Click on right mouse button "New window" on the video margin (not on the big arrow) or here to view the video in a separate window. If following the Peru History Project (Europe – English version) it is suggested you read the Preface and Introduction before you start. Use // to separate an English translation from the Spanish.

Text of videoEdit

Los españoles observaron muy asustadosEdit

00.06 Narrator. Era el 14 de noviembre de 1532. Al caer la noche, los españoles montaron guardia y observaron muy asustados como, en todos los cerros que rodeaban la ciudad, el ejército inca prendía fogatas que encendían la oscuridad como millares de estrellas. Según un cronista, los hombres se orinaban de miedo en los pantalones, sin tomar conciencia de sus actos.
//It was November 14, 1532. At nightfall, the Spaniards mounted guard and observed with consummate fear how in all the hills surrounding the city, the Inca army lit bonfires that shone in the darkness like thousands of stars. According to one chronicler, the men wet their trousers in fear, unaware they were doing so.

00.31 José Antonio del Busto. Tanto miedo tenia los españoles que esa noche se orinaban de miedo esa noche la vispera se desoltó el vientre. Esa noche . . . frios . . todos simptimos de terror. Y en cambio los indios entraron tranquilos, creyendo que iba a pasa nada, . . que iba a presenciar y nada mas.
//The Spaniards were so afraid that that night they wet their pants . . . they showed all the symptoms of being terrified. Conversely the Incas entered calmly thinking that nothing untoward would happen . . .

00.56 Narrator. En la mañana del día siguiente, 15 de noviembre, Atahualpa inició ritos que fueron seguidos por el ejército: se trataba de cantos rítmicos e incesantes, acompañados por coreografías en el sitio, sin desplazarse. Después de mediodía, los españoles se desesperaron y enviaron a uno de ellos a pie a apurar al inca; llegó hasta el campamento real, pero los indios no le prestaron mayor atención y continuaron su ceremonia.

El Inca ingresó a la plazaEdit

1.24 Narrator contd. Hacia las tres de la tarde, el Inca inició su marcha hacia Cajamarca; ingresó a la plaza de armas en andas, cargado por miembros del grupo étnico de Lucanas, quienes tenían en gran honra ser los porteadores del soberano. También en andas, aunque detrás, se hallaba el señor del Chinchaysuyu, quien pereció más tarde ese día. Delante del anda iban unos indios que recogían todo guijarro del camino, para que marche sobre suelo parejo y el Inca no se incomode. Estos indios estaban vestidos en escaques rojos. Detrás suyo, marchaban músicos y una enorme comparsa que danzaba rítmicamente; no entró a la plaza ningún guerrero indígena (Inca), todos quedaron afuera.

02.12 José Antonio del Busto. Atahualpa era . . Porque el Inca quiere saber quienes como son esos quien han venido. Qienes son, de donde han salido. Para que estan aquí. En que creyen. Que persiguen. Y toda esa curiosidad que las llevan al terreno de practicamente el teatro. Vamos ahí nosotros alla teatrisando el espectaculo para que el multitudo lo vea. Y delante de todo yo le aprecio que dice son dioses. Si yo aprecio a Tito Viracocha Paracoche

02.47 Narrator. El Inca entró de ese modo porque iba a conversar con los españoles a invitarlos a pasarse a su bando.

02.58 Efraín Trelles. //The Incas were not armed. There were acrobats . .

03.36 Narrator. Atahualpa ingresó a un baile ritual, a una ceremonia del poder, creyendo que una banda de infelices no podía hacerle daño.

03.45 José Antonio del Busto.

Atahualpa and Valverde. Chicha and the Bible thrown to the groundEdit

04.41 Narrator. Cuando Atahualpa llegó a la plaza se sorprendió al verla vacía, él había esperado encontrar al jefe de los barbudos. En su reemplazo, apareció el sacerdote dominico Vicente de Valverde acompañado por Felipillo. Atahualpa le alcanzó al sacerdote español un quero (vaso) de oro lleno de chicha, para brindar en forma ritual y poder comenzar una conversación entre seres civilizados. Valverde se asustó, creyó que lo querían envenenar y arrojó la chicha al suelo. Atahualpa tomó este acto como una grave ofensa, pero se contuvo. Luego, el dominico leyó unos párrafos santos tomados de la Biblia, mientras crecía la rabia de Atahualpa, sentía que le leían frases incomprensibles y sin sentido; alcanzó a preguntar, ¿de dónde salen esas palabras? El fraile le contestó que del libro (y se lo alcanzó). Al manipularlo, el Inca muy contrariado no entendió su contenido y lo arrojó lejos de sí. // When Atahualpa arrived at the plaza he was surprised to see it empty, he had expected to find the leader of the barbudos (bearded Spaniards). In his place was a Dominican priest, Vicente de Valverde, accompanied by Felipillo. Atahualpa (pr)offered the Spanish priest a golden quero (Inca vessel/cup) filled with chicha, in order to propose a ritual toast and start a conversation amongst civilized people. Valverde became scared, thinking they wanted to poison him and threw the chicha to the ground. Atahualpa took this (act) as a grave offense (insult), but was restrained. Then, the Dominican read some holy script taken from the Bible, Atahualpa became more furious. He felt they were putting to him (reading) incomprehensible and meaningless sentences. He asked, "where do those words come from?" The monk replied that they were from the book (and he offered it to him - not included in recording). On handling it the Inca became (disappointed). He did not understand its contents and threw it down (away).

05.42 Narrator. En ese momento, Valverde dio la señal convenida, “Santiago a ellos” e irrumpió la caballería. En las patas de los corceles habían adherido campañillas para hacer fuerte ruido y su galope fue feroz, atropellaron a la gente para dispersarla y apartarla del inca. En el uschnu, una torrecilla que había en la plaza, estaba escondido Pedro de Candia, y dos artilleros, quienes, al grito de Valverde, dispararon un pequeño cañón, cuyo ruido contribuyó a sembrar el espanto. Los indios del cortejo se abalanzaron sobre los muros de la plaza, que era una construcción cerrada. Hubo una gran carnicería.

06.26 José Antonio del Busto.

Liderando a los infantes, Pizarro se dirigió directamente hacia Atahualpa. Al llegar al pie del anda, los españoles aniquilaron a espadazos a los porteadores buscando que caiga el Inca; pero, ante el asombro generalizado de todos los cronistas que estuvieron presentes, los caídos eran reemplazados por otros cargadores que no luchaban, simplemente seguían cargando al Inca y se dejaban matar. En ese momento, un español perdió la compostura y trató de asesinar a Atahualpa atravesándolo con una lanza, Francisco Pizarro se interpuso y cogió la lanza con su mano. Esa fue la única sangre española que corrió aquel día. Finalmente cayó el anda, el inca fue atrapado y llevado preso. La caballería persiguió a los dispersos y alcanzó hasta el real de Atahualpa, donde obtuvieron un cuantioso botín.

A la mañana siguiente, los guardias españoles avistaron un grupo de indios que se acercaban a la plaza. Creyendo que era el ejército de Atahualpa que venía a rescatarlo, levantaron a los suyos y se aprestaron al combate. Pero, estaban equivocados. Eran los cañaris, que venían a incorporarse a su bando. Era tal su odio contra Atahualpa, que fueron el primer grupo étnico que tomó partido por los europeos. Para proponer formalmente una alianza, los cañaris traían diversos regalos, incluyendo mujeres, que les entregaron a los españoles. Pizarro supo que su plan comenzaba a tener éxito. En efecto, los españoles llevaban cuarenta años en América, ya habían pasado las conquistas del Caribe y de México, por lo tanto tenían una experiencia acumulada en las guerras contra los nativos. Esa experiencia se traducía en una estrategia que guió las dos conquistas principales: aztecas e incas. El plan consistía en capturar al monarca en una primera emboscada y luego atizar las contradicciones entre los indios, para desatar una guerra entre nativos, que les permita apoderarse del país.

Después de reponerse de la impresión de verse prisionero, Atahualpa decidió negociar. Habiendo tomado conciencia de la codicia europea por los metales preciosos, ofreció un rescate. Una expedición de la alta nobleza inca, acompañada por un escuadrón de caballería español, dirigido por Hernando Pizarro, salió hacia el santuario de Pachacamac para saquear las riquezas del antiguo oráculo costeño. En forma paralela, Atahualpa reunió una pequeña corte consigo y ordenó que algunas de las hijas de Huayna Capac vinieran para entregarlas a los principales conquistadores y entablar de ese modo relaciones de parentesco. En ese grupo llegó una joven alegre llamada Quispe Sisa, que era hija de Huayna Capac y de la poderosa curaca de Huaylas. Aparentemente, Pizarro quedó prendado de la joven, pues participó de una ceremonia andina de compromiso y la tomó como mujer. Bautizada como Inés Huaylas, ella le dio dos hijos al conquistador, que fueron los primeros que tuvo en su larga vida, no obstante que ya era casi un anciano. La hija mayor fue llamada Francisca, doña Pancha, y años después, consolidaría la fortuna y los títulos de nobleza de los Pizarro al casarse con su tío Hernando en España.

Mientras tanto, los españoles recibieron refuerzos, porque arribó Diego de Almagro con una nueva tropa que duplicó el número de la hueste hispana. Este segundo grupo no había participado de la captura del inca y por lo tanto carecía de derechos sobre el botín. Ellos querían continuar la conquista y presionaban para ajusticiar al Inca, ya que su prisión mantenía estancadas las operaciones. Lo lograron y Atahualpa fue ahorcado por medio del garrote. Durante la prisión del Inca, los españoles habían recibido la visita de los curacas cañaris, chachapoyas y huancas para sellar una alianza contra Atahualpa. Estos grupos étnicos habían sido conquistados por los cuzqueños y aspiraban a recuperar su autonomía. Creyeron que tenían una gran oportunidad sumándose a este nuevo poder que había irrumpido en los Andes. Entre otros, estos tres grupos fueron claves en la conquista porque guerrearon a favor de los europeos.

Poco después de ajusticiar a Atahualpa, Pizarro se dirigió al Cuzco. Nombró un inca títere, pero murió envenenado poco después de haber emprendido la marcha. Conciente que requería un inca de su lado, Pizarro buscó una segunda opción y la encontró en la persona de Manco Inca, que también era hijo de Huayna Capac, con la coya Mama Runtu, una integrante de la alta nobleza cuzqueña. En las guerras civiles entre los incas, Manco había combatido del lado de Huascar. En este momento, Manco participó de la lucha por el Cuzco a la vanguardia de un ejército integrado por los suyos, partidarios de Huascar, sumados a los españoles, chachapoyas, cañaris y huancas. Ese ejército combatió contra las tropas de Quisquis, que había sido un importante general de Atahualpa. Quisquis abandonó el Cuzco, pero salvó a su gente y cruzó con ellos todo el Tawantinsuyu, en un viaje épico de retroceso estratégico, para reaparecer en la región norteña de donde era originario. El general quiteño moriría defendiendo su región natal en un episodio posterior de la conquista.

De este modo, Pizarro entró al Cuzco de la mano de Manco, quien le abrió las puertas de la ciudad sagrada de los incas. Poco después se encendieron las disputas entre los españoles y Diego de Almagro partió para la frustrante conquista de Chile, basada en la infundada aspiración de encontrar otra gran civilización andina. La expedición de Almagro estuvo integrada por un grupo de aristócratas incas, incluyendo nada menos que al sumo sacerdote, el Vilac Umu. Los españoles se dividieron a cumplir diversas tareas después de recibir considerables refuerzos. En 1536 ya eran dos mil soldados hispanos en el Perú.

Inicialmente, los Pizarro habían organizado la conquista como una empresa privada. Ellos habían financiado la expedición, hallado socios y juntado la gente. Por su parte, los integrantes de la hueste aportaban su propia cuota, financiaban su alimentación, compraban sus armas, eventualmente su caballo y valorizaban cada uno de sus aportes. En este sentido, los conquistadores eran una compañía, que firmaba una concesión con el Rey de España, en este caso la famosa Capitulación de Toledo. El monarca les concedía el derecho a conquistar un determinado territorio a cambio del 20% de todo lo el botín que recogieran. Pero, con el Rey llegarían los funcionarios reales y sus órdenes que luego normarán el régimen colonial. En este sentido, la conquista fue obra de una partida de soldados empresarios, funcionando como avanzada del Imperio español, que se hallaba viviendo una gigantesca expansión en todo el planeta. Estaba comenzando el capitalismo mundial.

Al llegar 1536, Manco Inca había tomado conciencia de que el dominio español implicaba el sometimiento a un nuevo poder que trascendía al mundo andino. Ese año se produjo el levantamiento de los incas y el llamado a sublevación de todos los andinos contra los invasores europeos. Empleando una estratagema, Manco salió del Cuzco y juntó a su gente en Yucay donde llamó a la rebelión. Comenzó la resistencia general. Manco dividió sus tropas en tres ejércitos. El primero fue enviado contra los huancas, para castigarlos por su apoyo a los españoles y para anunciar que el Inca no aceptaría más el colaboracionismo. El segundo fue dirigido contra Lima y tenía por consigna, “a la mar barbudos”, queriendo echar a los españoles del mundo andino y obligarlos a regresar por dónde habían venido. El tercer ejército de Manco se lanzó a reconquistar el Cuzco y aniquilar a los españoles que habían hollado la capital sagrada.

El cerco del Cuzco se prolongó casi todo ese año, pero al llegar la temporada de labores agrícolas, Manco tuvo que licenciar a sus tropas porque era un ejército campesino que sumaba millares cuando tenían tiempo libre, pero que tenía pocos profesionales de la guerra. Los españoles habían resistido sostenidos por los cañaris y su momento de mayor angustia fue cuando Manco incendió el Cuzco y ellos se refugiaron en la iglesia del Triunfo. Cuando vieron que el cerco aflojaba, montaron una expedición que salió del Cuzco hacia el sur y dio la vuelta por las alturas para caer sobre la fortaleza templo de Saqsawaman, donde se habían concentrado los guerreros profesionales de Manco. La batalla fue tremenda, murió uno de los Pizarro, Juan, y sin embargo los españoles se impusieron. Al final resistió en una torre el mítico Cahuide, uno de los grandes capitanes de la resistencia indígena.

En forma paralela, un ejército inca puso cerco a Lima. En el camino recibieron el apoyo de los curacas locales del valle de Lima. Queda evidencia por ejemplo que los latis apoyaron al Inca, ellos tenían su centro en el moderno Ate. Para evitar a los caballos, intentaron tomar Lima por el río, puesto que las piedras dificultaban la maniobra de los equinos. El ejército de la resistencia inca estaba comandado por el general cuzqueño Quiso Yupanqui, quien murió peleando cuando los españoles recibieron refuerzos de los Huaylas. Francisco Pizarro había pedido ayuda a los parientes de su mujer y la madre de doña Inés, había enviado un ejército proveniente del callejón de Huaylas, para defender Lima con los hispanos contra los cuzqueños. De este modo, en cada una de las grandes batallas de la conquista, se hallan ejércitos de indígenas en ambos bandos, garantizando que al final el triunfo será de occidente. No se trató solamente de una superior tecnología militar, sino sobre todo de una capacidad política para desintegrar un imperio antiguo, de composición multiétnica, que no resistió la presión y se fragmentó ante el choque de civilizaciones. Luego, Manco Inca se refugió en la fortaleza templo de Ollantaitambo; el inca estaba iniciando su largo exilio interior, que culminó en las montañas de Vilcabamba. Allí, los últimos incas iban a durar cuarenta años de vana y heroica resistencia. The Conquest of Tawantinsuyu - the Empire of the Four Quarters / Inca Empire


0.27 Toni Zapata and Benito


Zapata: Hey, Benito. Today we are going to present the programme about the conquest of the Incas.

Benito: The Tawantinsuyu.

Zapata: A classic story of Peruvian history, Benito, which unfortunately is sometimes told/related really badly.

Benito: Why?

Zapata: Because they say that a group of just 170 Spaniards overthrew an empire of 12 millions of people in Cajamarca

Benito: That’s impossible, Profesor.

50.00 Zapata: And it damages the self-esteem of the Peruvians And above all you know that it is not true because actually this group of Spaniards – speaking about them first – were the advance guard of Westerners / Europeans (civilisation / had the trappings of Western technology) and had forty years of (campaign) experience because Columbus had arrived in the New World (1492) forty years before Pizarro got to Peru (in 1532).

Benito: OK

Zapata: In any case they had a plan.

Benito: What was it, Professor?

Zapata: Capture the Inca.

Benito: OK

Zapata: In an ambush, capture the sovereign and from there dismember the political entity / infrastructure of the indigenous people.

Benito: The strategy of chess.

Zepata: Exactly, capture the king (Inka) and win the match.

Benito: Check-mate.



1.37 Efrain Trelles?? The conquest was an economic enterprise not an Iberian one. Secondly it was undertaken privately. It wasn’t the Spanish state which was the conqueror. The conquistadors financed it themselves and for the risks they took on they received the labour (force) of the native American (gold / hacienda work).

José Antonio del Busto The conquest was not to be applauded nor grieved over. It happened. The Inca empire was not perfect. Neither was the Spanish. They were (demonstrated an encounter of) two human realities, two distinct systems of logic, two modes of thought, and two cultures which collided with each other and . . .


2.33 Section La Conquista -Narrative voiceover

The end of the Inca Empire was foretold (announced/ forseen/ ordained) (in 1531) at the time/when Huayna Capac was ruler (that is the Inca . . but disputed) and governing from Quito. At that time, the Inca (King) received news of the second voyage of the Spaniards.

2.54 Pizarro had landed in Tumbes, then he had returned to his caravel and continued down the coast until Chan Chan (the old Chimu city) was sighted / had come into view. There he decided to return to Spain to fit out a more adequate expedition as the incario was more than a match for his limited forces. Then the old Inca became ill and his successor had already been designated. Epidemics struck. This time it was smallpox, a disease from the Old World which (whose germs / bacteria?) travelled (traveled US) faster than the conquistadors and attacked - with extremely high death rates - populations which were lacking adequate defences. Both . . . . died and created a dangerous power vacuum in the Inca Empire.


3.40 Gabriela Ramos

Nobody could do anything in the face of these epidemics nor did they understand anything about them at that time. The Spaniards thought of them as a type of special help which they received by virtue of their being Christian.

4.00 Voiceover The mother of Huascar was the Coya and on the death of Huayna Capac, she quickly left Quito for Cuzco, where she proclaimed her son the new Inca.

José Antonio del Busto 4.11 Huascar was not quite right for the job. I smile when I say that Huascar’s life was similar to that of a playboy. He was a person who lacked discipline and objectivity and lived only to enjoy himself. He wasn’t the dignified successor to Hayna Capac, nor a . . . grandson to Tupac Yupanki or . . .Pachacutec.

4.36 Narative Voiceover 4.36 But Huascar began his government with radical measures. The new monarch sought to limit the power of the families of the imperial nobility (called panacas) because they had extended their power excessively and a huge expanse of territory was being privatised by the aristocracy of Cuzco.


Guillermo Cock 4.51 Every panaca, every inca and his descendents were taking over complete valleys and converting their populations into yanaconas and these were depending directly on them. This made the management of the state more complex because on the one hand it took these people out of the direct control of the Inca and added also other intermediaries. If the state needed something from this zone, if they needed people / labour from this area it had to go to the clan(s’) chieftain(s) of Cuzco.

5.31 Narative Voiceover The decisions of Huascar were resisted by the great aristocratic families and some rebelled, calling on Atahualpa to lead an uprising against the newly proclaimed Inca. For his part, Atahualpa was also a son of Huayna Capac and he, along with part of the court, had accompanied his father to Quito. ________________________________________ End of clip 1.


Video clip: conquista2.flv Atahualpa was defeated in an early battle and became a prisoner of the Cañaris, an ethnic group whose territory was located in the highlands of what is today Ecuador. But that night Atahualpa escaped from prison. He related how he had become a snake and had gained his freedom through the bars of the prison cell. According to his version he was a god and because of that he was invincible. Atahualpa managed to dominate the very bloody civil war between the Incas and won a hard victory. Huascar had given the command to several generals who were defeated, until he?? took over direction of the war and (but) the outcome was worse for his cause, for he was taken prisoner. It was the fateful year of 1532.

Whilst in Cajamarca, Atahualpa was informed of the reappearance of the hombres barbudos (bearded men) who (had) crossed the sea. He decided to halt his triumphal march to Cuzco and to receive the foreigners that had intrigued his father. The Inca capital has (already) been captured by General Quisquis loyal to Atahualpa, who had unleashed a ferocious repression on those of the aristocracy who had supported the defeated (Huascar) Inca in Cuzco. In Jauja in the centre of the Tawantinsuyu another army of Atahualpa was stationed, under the command of General Calcuchimac.

On the third voyage of conquest, the Spaniards again landed in Tumbes. They engaged in battles with the inhabitants. The land was ravaged by the civil war between (factions of) the Incas. Unlike the previous voyage, the Spanish did not find the same degree of order and friendliness. They continued their march towards (what today is) Piura. When they were crossing the Sechura desert a messenger from Atahualpa appeared. He was disguised as an ordinary Indian. He was called Apo and mixed among the Indians who followed the Spanish soldiers as carriers and vendors. Apo was far too enquiring whilst in the Spanish camp and prompted the anger of Hernando Pizarro, who was the only hildago (gentleman / courteous p.) of the four brothers Pizarro. Hernando kicked at Apo and on falling the turban which had hidden his large ears came undone. Apo was identified as an Orejón or member of the Inca aristocracy. When he had stood up, the Indians fell prostrate on their knees. The Spanish realized that they were faced with a real spy? and treated him with respect?. He was handed a goblet? of Venice crystal and two silk shirts from India as gifts to take to the Inca. 18/07/2009 21:25:31 ________________________________________

The Spaniards reached what is now Lambayeque and when they were near the cordillera Apo returned. This time he came as an ambassador, and was carried in a litter or sedan chair and had brought a gift from Atahualpa, which included a model of a fortress and three skinned ducks. Pizarro was taken aback and interpreted the gift as a sign that Atahualpa was confident in his strength and was “threatening to skin them”. Furthermore, Apo invited them to Cajamarca to meet the Inca who indicated that he wished to receive them.

Apo returned to Atahualpa, telling him what he had seen and they together worked out a plan, which was to seize the Spaniards’ horses. The animal gene pool of the Tawantinsuyu was rather limited - there was no animal with the possibility of being ridden/mounted or used for ploughing / plowing. All agriculture and transportation were on foot. The camelids were beautiful animals, but it wasn’t a bad idea to get hold of animals which would be able to transform the economic and political life of Tawantinsuyu. According to the opinion of Apo, the dogs were dangerous because they had been seen to eat meat, but the horses had won them over because they were herbivores. To seize the horses they the Incas would let the Spaniards enter (Cajamarca) and not ?finish with them in whatever pass¿ through thecordillera. The Incas were not afraid. Atahualpa was the son of the Sun and, as such the personification of God. ________________________________________ It was thought that his majesty could not submit to any mortal. Atahualpa was at a special moment in his life because he was ¿¿exhalted by his victory over Huascar and did not take precautions, but faced events transfixed by a blind faith in his own ?magnificence.

The Spanish column went to Cajamarca; as agreed with Apo, the city was virtually abandoned and the square empty. But, when they entered, each new ¿¿elevation¿, the Spaniards noted shops, stores and military camps. Once in Cajamarca, Francisco Pizarro ordered his men into three groups taking shelter in large ¿rooms¿, called "callancas” that gave out onto the plaza / square. In the most spacious area he put the cavalry commanded by his brother Hernando Pizarro and the other Hernando - surname “de Soto” – the conquistador of Florida. The infantry was with him, another callanca of the square. Then he sent a detachment of twenty horsemen under the command of the two Hernandos to meet Atahualpa and ¿invite¿ him to come and talk in the plaza.

The riders travelled to the Baños del Inca, where Atahualpa had his actual camp. There he received them sitting on a carpet and with his head bowed / looking downwards. He did not even glance at them. They did not speak the same language, were incommunicado except for the two interpreters Felipillo and Martinillo two Indians kidnapped as adolescents during the previous trip, that scarcely dominated both languages, as neither was their mother tongue. The interpreters were young coastal traders who were on a raft (explain balsa: Quechua) which had been captured ¿abducted by the conquerors. They had been taken to Spain and now were returning as key characters in the enterprise of conquest: the first messengers.

It was November 14, 1532. At nightfall, the Spaniards mounted guard and looked on (increasingly frightened) as they saw how on all the hills surrounding the city, the Incan army lit bonfires that illuminated the darkness as if with thousands of stars. According to one chronicler, the men wet their pants / trousers in fear – unconsciously. On the following morning, November 15, Atahualpa and his army started up a sequence of rites and rituals - rhythmic and relentless chants accompanied by ritual-dances on the on the same site. They never moved far. After noon, the Spaniards despaired and sent one of them walk to hasten the Inca reached the royal camp, but the Indians gave it more attention and continued their ceremony.

Towards three in the afternoon, the Inca began their march towards Cajamarca, entered the square in litter, carried by members of the ethnic group Lucanas, who were greatly honored to be carriers of the sovereign. Also in doing, but behind, was the lord of the Chinchaysuyu, who died later that day. Iban walks in front of the Indians gathered around a pebble path, that runs on land and even the Inca was not uncomfortable. These Indians were clothed in red squares. Behind him, marching musicians and a great extra that danced rhythmically not entered the plaza no indigenous warriors, were all out. The Incas entered so it was going to talk to the Spaniards to invite them to migrate to your side. Atahualpa entered a dance ritual, a ceremony of power, believing that a band could not hurt unhappy.

When Atahualpa arrived at the plaza was surprised to see it empty, he had expected to find the bearded leader. In his replacement, was a Dominican priest Vicente de Valverde, accompanied by Felipillo. Atahualpa him to a Spanish priest gold cup full of chicha, to provide in the form and ritual to begin a conversation among civilized beings. Valverde got scared, thought you wanted to poison and thrown to the ground chicha. Atahualpa took this act as a serious offense, but was contained. Then, the Dominican saints read a few paragraphs taken from the Bible, growing anger Atahualpa felt it read sentences incomprehensible and meaningless, was to ask, where does it leave those words? The monk replied that the book and it was. By manipulating the Inca was very disappointed he did not understand its contents and threw it away from them.

At that time, Valverde gave the signal agreed "to Santiago" and the cavalry burst. At the feet of the horses had bells adhered to loud noise and was fierce gallop, run over people and to disperse away from the Inca. In uschnu, which had a turret on the plaza was hiding Pedro de Candia, and two gunners, who, to the cry of Valverde, fired a small cannon, which helped sow the noise espanto. The courtship of Indians swooped on the walls of the plaza, a building that was closed. There was a great slaughter.

Leading infants Pizarro headed straight to Atahualpa. Upon arriving at the foot of the walk, the Spaniards annihilated espadazos to carriers seeking to topple the Inca, but generalized to the astonishment of all the columnists who were present, those who died were replaced by other shippers who do not fight, just still loading the Inca and were left to kill. At that time, a Spanish lost his composure and tried to kill with a spear through it Atahualpa, Francisco Pizarro intervened and took the spear with his hand. That was the only Spanish blood that ran that day. Finally got going, the Inca was caught and taken prisoner. The cavalry pursued the scattered and reached up to real Atahualpa, which obtained a large booty.

The next morning, the guards spotted a group of Canadian Indians who came to the square. Believing that it was the army of Atahualpa who came to rescue him, raised his family and to prepare to fight. But they were wrong. Were Canaris, who came to join his side. Such was his hatred of Atahualpa, who were the first ethnic group that stood by Europeans. To formally propose an alliance, bringing Canaris various gifts, including women, who handed them to the Spaniards. Pizarro knew that his plan was beginning to succeed. Indeed, the Spaniards took forty years in America, had already passed the conquests of Mexico and the Caribbean, therefore had an experience in the wars against the natives. That experience resulted in a strategy that led the two major achievements: Aztecs and Incas. The plan was to capture the first monarch in an ambush and then stir the contradictions among the Indians, to unleash a war between natives, allowing them to take over the country.

After you get over the feeling of being captive, Atahualpa decided to negotiate. Having become aware of the greed for precious metals Europe, offered a ransom. An expedition to the Inca nobility, accompanied by a squadron of Spanish cavalry, led by Hernando Pizarro, came to the sanctuary of Pachacamac to plunder the riches of the ancient oracle coast. In parallel, Atahualpa met with a small court and ordered that some of the daughters of Huayna Capac came to deliver the most engaging and conquerors thus kinship relations. In this group became known as a happy couple Quispe Sisa, who was the daughter of Huayna Capac and the powerful curaca de Huaylas. Apparently, Pizarro was fascinated by the young, as part of an Andean ceremony took commitment and a woman. Dubbed Inés Huaylas, she gave two sons to the conqueror, who were the first who had in his long life, however, that it was almost an old man. The eldest daughter was named Francisca, Doña Pancha, and years later, would fortune and titles of nobility from Pizarro to marry his uncle Ferdinand in Spain.

Meanwhile, the Spaniards received reinforcements, because Diego de Almagro arrived with a new army, which has doubled the number of Hispanic host. This second group had not participated in the capture of the Inca and therefore had no rights to the loot. They wanted to fight and pressed for the Inca executed because his prison operations remained stagnant. And succeeded Atahualpa was hanged by the club. During the prison of the Inca, the Spaniards had been visited curaca of Canaris, and Chachapoyas Huancas to seal an alliance against Atahualpa. These ethnic groups were conquered by the Cuzco and were hoping to regain their autonomy. They believed they had a great opportunity to join this new power had appeared in the Andes. Among others, these three groups were key in winning that war on behalf of the Europeans.

Soon after to execute Atahualpa, Pizarro went to Cuzco. Appointed a puppet Inca, poisoned but died shortly after having undertaken the march. Conscious for a disability on their side, a second option Pizarro sought and found in the person of Manco Inca, who was also a son of Huayna Capac, the Coya Mama Runtu, a member of the nobility Cuzco. In the civil wars among the Incas, Manco had fought on the side of Huascar. At this time, Manco part of the struggle for Cuzco in the vanguard of an army composed of his own supporters in Huascar, coupled with the Spaniards, Chachapoyas, and Huancas Canaris. That army fought against the troops of Quisquis, who had been a major general of Atahualpa. Quisquis left Cuzco, but he saved his people and passed them around the Tawantinsuyu in an epic journey of strategic retreat, to reappear in the northern region where it originates. The general Quito died defending his home region in a later episode of the conquest.

Thus, Pizarro entered Cuzco at the hands of Manco, who opened the doors of the sacred city of the Incas. Shortly thereafter ignited disputes between Spaniards and Diego de Almagro departed frustrating for the conquest of Chile, based on unfounded desire to find another great Andean civilization. The issue of Almagro was composed by a group of aristocrats Incas, including none other than the high priest, the umu Vilac. The Spaniards were divided to perform various tasks after receiving substantial reinforcements. In 1536 and Hispanics were two thousand soldiers in Peru.

Initially, Pizarro had organized the conquest as a private company. They had financed the expedition, found partners and people together. For their part, members of the heavenly troops share their own, financed their food, buy their weapons, eventually recovered his horse and each of their contributions. In this sense, the conquerors were a company, which signed a concession with the King of Spain, in this case the famous capitulation of Toledo. The king granted them the right to conquer a territory in exchange for 20% of all the loot they gather. But with the King and royal officials would reach him and then regulate the colonial regime. In this sense, the conquest was the work of a business line of soldiers, working as a Spanish outpost of Empire, which was experiencing a massive expansion across the globe. Global capitalism was beginning.

When you reach 1536, Manco Inca had realized that mastering Spanish meant subjection to a new power that went beyond the Andean world. That year saw the lifting of the Incas and the call to all the Andean uprising against the invading Europeans. Using a ruse, Manco left Cuzco and joined his people in Yucay which called for the rebellion. Overall resistance began. Manco divided their forces into three armies. The first was sent against Huancas, to punish them for their support of the Spanish and Inca to announce that the collaboration would not agree more. The second was directed at Lima and was recorded, "the bearded sea, trying to put the Spaniards in the Andean world and force them to return where they came. The third army Manco was launched to retake Cuzco and annihilate the Spaniards who had trodden the sacred capital.

The siege of Cuzco lasted almost throughout the year, but to reach the farming season, Manco had to license his troops because he was a peasant army that had joined thousands when free time, but had few professional soldiers. The Spaniards had resisted sustained by Canaris and his moment of greatest anguish was burned when Manco Cuzco, and they took refuge in the church of Triumph. When they saw that the noose loose, mounted an expedition left Cuzco to the south and turned around by the hills to fall on the strength of Saqsawaman temple, where the Warriors had focused professionals Manco. The battle was tremendous, one died of Pizarro, Juan, but the Spaniards were imposed. At the end stood a tower in the mythical Cahuide, one of the great masters of the indigenous resistance.

In parallel, an army siege of Lima Inca began. On the road received the support of the local valley curaca Lima. Evidence is such that latis supported the Inca, which had its center in the fashionable Tie. To prevent the horses, tried to take down the river Lima, as the stones hampering the movement of horses. The army of the Inca resistance was commanded by General Cuzco wanted Yupanqui, who died when fighting the Spaniards received reinforcements of Huaylas. Francisco Pizarro had asked for help to relatives of his wife and mother of Doña Inés, had sent an army from the Callejon de Huaylas, to defend Lima Cuzco against Hispanics. Thus, in each of the major battles of the conquest of indigenous armies are on both sides, ensuring that the end is the triumph of the west. It is not only a superior military technology, but of a political ability to break an old rule of multi-ethnic composition, which could not resist the pressure and fragmented before the clash of civilizations. Then, Manco Inca fled to the fortress temple Ollantaitambo, the Inca was beginning its long internal exile, culminating in the mountains of Vilcabamba. There, the last Inca iban last forty years of futile and heroic resistance.


START Choose where you would like (your class / tutor group) to start from: (1) Around the time of the first urban settlements 3000 BC; (2) Just before the invasion by Spaniards 1530 (3) Just after the 1746 earthquake in Lima; (4) Just before the Wars of Independence from Spain 1808 on; (5) Just before the war with Chile 1879 or (6) other.

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