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La Conquista 4

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History: Sucedió en el Perú


SummaryEdit

Text and translation in EnglishEdit

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Diego de Almagro arrives with reinforcements, presses for the killing of Atahualpa, further conquests and a share of new bootyEdit

00.01 Mientras tanto, los españoles recibieron refuerzos, porque arribó Diego de Almagro con una nueva tropa que duplicó el número de la hueste hispana. Este segundo grupo no había participado de la captura del inca y por lo tanto carecía de derechos sobre el botín. Ellos querían continuar la conquista y presionaban para ajusticiar al Inca, ya que su prisión mantenía estancadas las operaciones. Lo lograron y Atahualpa fue ahorcado por medio del garrote.// Meanwhile, the Spaniards received reinforcements. Diego de Almagro arrived with new troops, which doubled the number of the Hispanic forces. This second group had not participated in the capture of the Inca and therefore had no “rights” to the loot or booty. They wanted to fight[clarify] and pressed for the execution of the Inca because his imprisonment held up further operations. They succeeded and Atahualpa was strangled by garrote.

Spaniards gain allies in the Cañaris, the Chachapoyas and the HuancasEdit

00.32 Narrator. Durante la prisión del Inca, los españoles habían recibido la visita de los curacas cañaris, chachapoyas y huancas para sellar una alianza contra Atahualpa. Estos grupos étnicos habían sido conquistados por los cuzqueños y aspiraban a recuperar su autonomía. Creyeron que tenían una gran oportunidad sumándose a este nuevo poder que había irrumpido en los Andes. Entre otros, estos tres grupos fueron claves en la conquista porque guerrearon a favor de los europeos. // During the imprisonment of the Inca, the Spaniards had been visited by the curacas (chiefs) of the Cañaris, the Chachapoyas and the Huancas (CCH) to seal an alliance against Atahualpa. These ethnic groups had been conquered by Cuzco and were hoping to regain their autonomy. They believed that a great opportunity presented itself by joining this new power (the Spaniards) which had appeared in the Andes. Among other factors, these three groups were key in winning the war on behalf of the Europeans.

After killing Atahualpa, Pizarro appoints a puppet Inca and leaves for Cuzco. Inca soon dies. Then follows Manco Inca a son of Huayna Capac and of Coya Mama Runtu, a member of the Cuzco nobility.Edit

1.03 Poco después (Luego) de ajusticiar a Atahualpa, Pizarro se dirigió al Cuzco. Nombró un inca títere, pero murió envenenado poco después de haber emprendido la marcha. Conciente que requería un inca de su lado, Pizarro buscó una segunda opción y la encontró en la persona de Manco Inca, que también era hijo de Huayna Capac, con la coya Mama Runtu, una integrante de la alta nobleza cuzqueña. // Soon after Atahualpa was murdered, Pizarro went to Cuzco. He appointed a puppet Inca, who died from poisoning shortly after having set out. Knowing that he needed the support of an Inca, Pizarro found a replacement in the person of Manco Inca, who also was a son of Huayna Capac, and of the Coya Mama Runtu, a member of the Cuzco nobility.

Atahualpa-Peruvian and Quiteño general Quisquis defends Cuzco against the Spaniards and their collaborateurs:the Cañaris, the Chachapoyas, the Huancas and the followers of Huascar. Quisquis epic long march to the north of TawantinsuyuEdit

01.30 En las guerras civiles entre los incas, Manco había combatido del lado de Huascar. En este momento, Manco participó de la lucha por el Cuzco a la vanguardia de un ejército integrado por los suyos, partidarios de Huascar, sumados a los españoles, chachapoyas, cañaris y huancas. Ese ejército combatió contra las tropas de Quisquis, que había sido un importante general de Atahualpa. Quisquis abandonó el Cuzco, pero salvó a su gente y cruzó con ellos todo el Tawantinsuyu, en un viaje épico de retroceso estratégico, para reaparecer en la región norteña de donde era originario. El general quiteño moriría defendiendo su región natal en un episodio posterior de la conquista.// In the civil wars among the Incas, Manco had fought on the side of Huascar. Now Manco fought in the struggle for Cuzco in the vanguard of an army composed of his own; the supporters of Huascar, together with the Spaniards, the Chachapoyas, the Cañaris and the Huancas. That army fought against the troops of Quisquis, who had been one of Atahualpa’s generals. Quisquis left (abandoned) Cuzco, but he saved his people and with them crossed all of the Tawantinsuyu in an epic journey of strategic retreat, to reappear in the northern region from where he originated. This general from Quito died defending his home region in a later episode of the conquest.

Spanish thought of as temporary ravagersEdit

2.20 Guillermo Cock. Pizarro appeared to Cuzco to be an intermediary who intervened to bring dramatic change to the Andes -opening anew era in Andean history. The Incas never thought that the Spanish were there to stay.

Manco delivers Cuzco to the Spaniards. Disputes break out. The Almagro expedition to ChileEdit

2.51 Narrator. De este modo, Pizarro entró al Cuzco de la mano de Manco, quien le abrió las puertas de la ciudad sagrada de los incas. Poco después se encendieron las disputas entre los españoles y Diego de Almagro partió para la frustrante conquista de Chile, basada en la infundada aspiración de encontrar otra gran civilización andina. La expedición de Almagro estuvo integrada por un grupo de aristócratas incas, incluyendo nada menos que al sumo sacerdote, el Vilac Umu.// Thus, Pizarro entered Cuzco thanks to Manco, who opened the doors of the sacred city of the Incas to the Spaniards. Shortly thereafter disputes broke out between the Spaniards and Diego de Almagro departed on the conquest of Chile, frustrated because it had been based on the unsubstantiated desire to find another great Andean civilization. Almagro’s expedition included a group of Inca aristocrats, including none other than the high priest, the Vilac Umu.

3.21 (Rafael Varón) Pizarro was the main investor. Almagro was the second investor. The enigma(tic), third partner – mysterious – was Gaspar Espinosa, who was a Spanish banker resident in Panama. The priest Hernando de Luque was the facade for Espinosa. Luque was a prestanombre in the enterprise.

4.34 Los españoles se dividieron a cumplir diversas tareas después de recibir considerables refuerzos. En 1536 ya eran dos mil soldados hispanos en el Perú. // The Spanish split up to achieve various aims after receiving considerable reinforcements. In 1536 there were already 2000 Spanish soldiers in Peru.


4.44 (Rafael Varón) If we remember the three names of the conquest Pizarro, Almagro and Luque, we now have to (ex)change Luque for Espinosa.

4.55 Inicialmente, los Pizarro habían organizado la conquista como una empresa privada. Ellos habían financiado la expedición, hallado socios y juntado la gente. // Initially, the Pizarros had organized the conquest as a private company. They had financed the expedition, found partners and got people together.

5.07 (Rafael Varón) It was a myth that the early conquistadors were poor. To arrive in America was a large investment. . . (Summary. Complete transcription and translation needed).

6.01 (Por su parte) los integrantes de la hueste aportaban su propia cuota, financiaban su alimentación, compraban sus armas, eventualmente su caballo y valorizaban cada uno de sus aportes. En este sentido, los conquistadores eran una compañía, que firmaba una concesión con el Rey de España, en este caso la famosa Capitulación de Toledo. // For their part, the (Spanish) troops provided their own part of the investment, financed their food, bought their weapons, and eventually their horses (. . . ). In this sense, the conquerors were a (commercial) company, which signed a concession with the King of Spain, in this case the famous Capitulación de Toledo.


6.23 (José de la Puente B.) The Spanish crown or state needed the conquitadores to populate and evangelize . . . There was a mutual dependence between state and (Pizarro) . . . (Summary. Complete transcription and translation needed).

7.02 (Rafael Varón) The major expenses: ships, arms, horses . . . were financed by the conquistadors’ company. (All) participants were shareholders . . . . (Summary. Complete transcription and translation needed).

7.58 El monarca les concedía el derecho a conquistar un determinado territorio a cambio del 20% de todo lo el botín que recogieran. Pero, con el Rey llegarían los funcionarios reales y sus órdenes que luego normarán el régimen colonial. // The king granted them the right to conquer a territory in exchange for 20% of all the booty that they obtained. But royal officials would travel with them and royal orders would then regulate the colonial regime.

8.15 (José de la Puente B.) The Capitulación was a license, a form of blessing . . . . (Summary. Complete transcription and translation needed).

8.55 (Rafael Varón) The Spanish state effectively granted a concession and had the power to exclude other conquistadors from the territory of a specific Capitulación.

9.32 En este sentido, la conquista fue obra de una partida de soldados empresarios, funcionando como avanzada del Imperio español, que se hallaba viviendo una gigantesca expansión en todo el planeta. Estaba comenzando el capitalismo mundial. // In this sense the conquest was the work of soldier-businessmen, working as an outpost of the Spanish Empire, which was experiencing a massive expansion across the globe. Global capitalism was starting up.

3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FECSPh9a4Ws

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